American Civil War

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Everything about the American Civil War

Civil War Technology

Civil War Technology made the American Civil War the first industrial and modern war. Technologies ranged from hot air balloons to submarines.

Old style smooth bore muskets were quickly phased out and rifles were now mass produced in huge quantities on both sides. These rifles allowed soldiers to fire accurately at long distances causing massive casualties.

The use of Photography meant that the war was the first conflict to be recorded on a large scale with actual photographs instead of paintings.

Civil War Technology - Locomotive J.H. Devereux

Civil War Locomotive J.H. Devereux

Commanders in the Civil War also made great use of the telegraph on a massive scale. Never before in warfare had communication been made so easy and instantly.

The telegraph allowed generals to relay information in real time with each other. The use of railroads on both sides became critically important in transporting troops and supplies.

Civil War Technology – Weapons

Of all of the technological advances made by the time of the Civil War, the rifle made the biggest impact. The rifle was created long before the Civil War.

It was used in limited numbers and typically by specialized troops during the Revolutionary War. At the beginning of the Civil War in 1861 both sides were still primarily using the old smooth-bore muskets.

These muskets were not accurate and did not have a long range. The musket had a smooth barrel which used a round lead ball as ammunition.

Union Soldiers with Rifles

Union Soldiers with Rifles

When fired the lead ball would bounce around inside the barrel. This resulted in very inaccurate results. The reason soldiers lined up shoulder to shoulder in the Revolutionary War was because muskets needed to be used in a massed volley in order to have any chance of actually hitting anything.

After the Civil War had begun arsenals began mass producing rifles instead of the old smooth-bore muskets.

Rifles were a far superior weapon in every way. They had groves in the barrel that gripped ammunition tightly which put a spin on the bullet allowing for deadly accurate and long range fire. With the new rifle came a new bullet.

Minie Ball

Gone was the round lead ball. In it’s place was a bullet that resembles today’s modern bullets. It is called a minie ball, this bullet exited the barrel of a rifle spinning and at a high velocity.

The bottom of the minie ball had little groves in it that helped it grip onto the inside of the rifles barrel. These groves also carried bacteria, when a soldier was shot this bacteria entered the wound and caused infections.

The only way to deal with these infections during the Civil War was to amputate.

Gatling Gun in the Civil War

The Gatling gun was a Civil War technology invented by Richard Jordan Gatling in 1861 and patented in 1862. The Gatling gun was essentially the first machine gun.

It used multiple barrels driven by a hand crank allowing the gun to shoot at a rapid rate of fire. It was first used by General Benjamin Butler during the siege of Petersburg in 1864 and 1865.

The below images are an improved version of the Gatling patented in 1865.

Gatling Gun Patent Drawing 1865 - National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Patent and Trademark Office

Gatling Gun Patent Drawing 1865 – National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Patent and Trademark Office

Gatling Gun Civil War

Gatling Gun Civil War – National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Patent and Trademark Office

The Gatling gun was never used on a large scale during the Civil War. The gun required large amounts of ammunition which the Union saw as being wasteful.

The United States did not begin using this weapon until after the Civil War. The Gatling gun was formally adopted into the United States army in 1866.

Civil War Technology – Torpedoes (Landmines and Naval Mines)

During the war the Confederacy was always trying to come up with innovative ways of stopping the Union army. One of these ideas was by using torpedoes, this was just another name for landmines and naval mines.

They used torpedoes in land and at sea. They did some damage here and there but it wasn’t something that was going to win the south the war.

Civil War Technology – Ironclads

The Civil War also saw the beginning of modern naval ships. These new ships were clad with iron earning them the nickname “ironclads”. Some ironclads like the monitor class of ships are very similar to today’s warships.

Civil War Technology - Union Ironclad Monitor Onandaga

The Union Ironclad Monitor Onandaga

They sat low in the water and had either one or two rotating gun turrets, which enabled them to fire in any direction without having to turn the ship.

After the introduction of ironclads in the Civil War naval warfare never went back to wooden sailing ships. After ironclads came dreadnoughts.

Civil War Technology – Submarines

Civil War technology also saw the first successful use of a submarine. The Confederates created a submarine called the Hunley, named after it’s creator. The Hunley was powered by eight men who sat on a bench and turned a propeller with a hand crank.

It was a crude method of propelling a boat but it worked. The Hunley only went on one mission against the Union navy. In February 1864, the Hunley quietly approached and attached a naval mine to the USS Housatonic.

When the mine exploded the USS Housatonic became the first ship in history to be destroyed by a submarine. Only minutes after successfully sinking the USS Housatonic the Hunley also sank. It is still unclear what actually sank the Hunley.

Civil War Technology – Railroads

Railroads proved to be a vitally important Civil War technology. Railroads were essential for keeping the war moving and keeping troops supplied. The Union Railroad Train system was far superior to Confederate Railroads.

Nashville Tennessee Railroad Depot, 1864

Nashville Tennessee Railroad Depot, 1864

The north was a very industrialized society with large cities and massive infrastructure. The south was an agricultural society, with little infrastructure.

Most of the United States railroad system prior to the war was built in the North. The south had railroads as well but they had far fewer tracks and locomotives than the north.

This would hinder the south’s ability to wage war, however they used what rail they did have to great effect. One example was the timely reinforcement by rail of Confederate troops during the First Battle of Manassas.

These reinforcements helped the Confederates win a devastating victory over the Union. Rail transport was also instrumental for the Confederacy when they captured Harper’s Ferry.

Civil War Technology – Telegraphs

The telegraph was perhaps one of the most effective technologies used during the Civil War.

Civil War Technology - Telegraph Operators for the Army of the Potomac, August 1863

Telegraph Operators for the Army of the Potomac, August 1863

It allowed commanders to instantly communicate with each other and provide almost real time information about battle results, enemy troop movements, unit locations etc…

Abraham Lincoln used the telegraph daily. He often spent long nights in the telegraph office issuing orders to his generals and waiting for news from the front. He wanted to know exactly what was happening on the various battlefields.

Telegraph lines were strung up as soon as an army arrived at any location. Civil War soldiers grew adept at putting up telegraph lines since they were doing it so frequently.

Civil War Technology - Union Observation Balloon during the Battle of Fair Oaks, 1862

Union Observation Balloon during the Battle of Fair Oaks, 1862

In conjunction with the telegraph the Union military also employed observation balloons during the Civil War to watch battles and monitor enemy troop movements.

These movements were then relayed to ground commanders who could adjust their own troop movements accordingly or telegraph back to headquarters what they had witnessed.

Civil War Technology – Pictures

Civil War pictures showed war in a way that had never been seen before. In prior wars and even during the Civil War painters often accompanied armies on battlefields.

They later sat and painted what they saw. These paintings looked nice with gallant soldiers bravely fighting in a battle, however they failed to capture the brutality of war. They never showed the bloated corpses littered across a battlefield, or the destroyed cities, or the starving prisoners of war.

Painting of the Battle of Shiloh, April 6th - 7th 1862

Painting of the Battle of Shiloh, April 6th – 7th 1862

Photographs showed these things. Warfare could never be seen the same way again after the Civil War. The most famous Civil War photographer was Alexander Gardner.

Most of the pictures you see today of the Civil War were taken by him. His boss and studio owner Mathew Brady is usually the person who gets credited for most of the photography of the Civil War.

It was however, Alexander Gardner and his team who were out in the field taking the pictures.

Civil War Technology – Food

Civil War technology was not very good when it came to food. Food is one of the most important things to any soldier in an army.

Union Soldiers Eating

Union Soldiers Eating

However the only thing technology really had going for it when it came to food was canned food. Napoleon Bonaparte is credited as being the first person to use canned food to feed his army.

When the Civil War started cans were commonly being used on both sides. Canning certainly made it easier to transport and store food, however they were also difficult to open and they were heavy.

Civil War Technology – Aftermath

Often during wartime technology advances at a far greater speed than it ever does during peacetime. This is simply because during war there is a great need to get an edge on the enemy.

The technology that came out of the American Civil War had long lasting implications.

The Civil War can be seen as a precursor to World War 1.

Union troops in Rifle Pits

Union troops in Rifle Pits

Many technologies from the Civil War such as Gatling guns, mines, ironclads, observation balloons and submarines became much more advanced as the years went on.

Toward the end of the war both the Union and Confederate armies began to dig themselves into trenches just like World War One. The largest example of this was during the Siege of Petersburg in 1865.

After the Civil War armies would never again line up in nice formations and stand across from each other firing volley after volley until one side ran away.

It took years for the Union and Confederate generals to update their tactics to reflect the new weapons in the hands of their armies.

Civil War Technology2020-01-22T22:56:45-05:00

Civil War Diseases

There were a whole host of Civil War diseases during the American Civil War.

The major cause of death during the Civil War was disease.

Disease killed more people than everything else combined including gunshots, artillery, accidents, drowning, starvation, suicide etc…

The worst disease in the Civil War was Dysentery. Dysentery accounted for around 45,000 deaths in the Union army and around 50,000 deaths in the Confederate army.

The reason Dysentery and so many other diseases were able to spread so rapidly through both armies was primarily because of a lack of sanitation practices and contaminated water. Proper hygiene during this time was nonexistent.

Treating Civil War Diseases at Armory Square Hospital, Washington, D.C.

Patients at Armory Square Hospital, Washington, D.C.

This was not because doctors and nurses were negligent. They just did not know any better. Civil War Medicine was not yet advanced enough to connect a lack of hygiene with disease.

For example during a typical Civil War surgery cleanliness was a mere afterthought. Surgeons would often use the same tools continuously on patient after patient never cleaning them. They might wipe them off on their apron, but that was about as much cleaning as any piece of equipment received.

Surgeons and Stewards at Harewood Hospital, Washington, D.C.

Surgeons and Stewards at Harewood Hospital, Washington, D.C.

Cross contamination was not known, so there was no thought of washing and sanitizing instruments after they had been used. Needless to say surgeons did not wash their hands between patients either.

Unfortunately for people back then they didn’t realize that there was a link between hygiene and health. Civil War nurses also helped to tend to sick soldiers. Often they put themselves at risk for disease in doing so.

Disease and Contaminated Water

Simple things such as placing a latrine downstream and away from the clean water supply were often overlooked. This foul water would quickly lead to water contamination which made the development and spread of disease much more frequent.

An interesting book that provides a great deal of information about Civil War diseases is Nature’s Civil War: Common Soldiers and the Environment in 1862 Virginia (Civil War America). It describes what the soldiers really had to endure just to keep themselves healthy in such an unhealthy environment.

Civil War Field Hospital

Civil War Field Hospital near Brandy Station, 1864

Civil War Disease List

So what diseases were there in the Civil War? Here is a look at some of the major Civil War diseases that people had to contend with:

Civil War Diseases: Typhoid

Typhoid was another major killer. This disease was a result of contaminated water or food. Typhoid killed around 30,000 Confederate and 35,000 Union troops during the war. 1 out of every 3 people who contracted this disease died of it.

Civil War Diseases: Pneumonia

Pneumonia was responsible for the deaths of 20,000 Union and 17,000 Confederate troops. 1 in 6 people who got this disease died from it. Stonewall Jackson died from Pneumonia after being shot by his own men during the battle of Chancellorsville.

Pneumonia was more of an opportunistic type of disease. It looked for weak people to inject itself into. If you became wounded on the battlefield or became sick with something else there was a good chance Pneumonia was going to find you.

Civil War Diseases: Measles

Measles killed a lot of people during the Civil War around 11,000 soldiers in total. Not as many as other diseases did but it had its fair share. With so many people gathered in such small areas this disease was able to spread rapidly. About 1 in 20 people who got this disease died as a result of it.

Civil War Diseases: Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis killed about 14,000 soldiers during the war. There was no known cure for it during the war. Even today there is no real cure, it can be treated but never cured. Once you get this disease you get it for life.

Civil War Diseases: Malaria

Malaria was also prevalent during the war killing roughly 30,000 soldiers. This number is high but considering around 3 million people contracted the disease it was not often fatal. This was due in large part to the readily available supply of quinine, which was used to successfully prevent and treat the disease.

The biggest thing that all of these Civil War diseases had in common was that nobody had any idea how to cure them. With the exception of Malaria.

This spelled bad news if you were one of the unfortunate ones to come down with any of these diseases.

Civil War Diseases2020-01-18T17:19:33-05:00

Civil War Food

Civil War food came in many shapes and sizes. Suppose you’re a Civil War soldier and you’ve marched all day in the grueling heat.

You’re exhausted, but you have one more duty before you can retire to your tent to dream of better days; you have to cook your dinner.

Civil War soldiers never had the luxury of standing in a mess line waiting for army cooks to dish out the chow.

Civil War Soldiers Eating Food

Civil War Soldiers Eating Food

How Did Soldiers Get Food in the Civil War

Civil War food for both Union and Confederate soldiers was provided by their respective Commissary Departments, but the daily rations were given to the soldiers uncooked.

Civil War Generals and other officers had the luxury of a cook, however the vast majority of soldiers gathered in small groups each evening to prepare their own food.

They called these groups “messes” and referred to others in the group as “messmates”. Messmates took turns watching the meals they cooked. Food in the Civil War was cooked over an open campfire in a cast iron skillet or kettle or occasionally on a spit.

If they had the time, soldiers tried to devise ways of making their dull diet a little more varied, occasionally catching wild game or picking wild berries.

Food during the Civil War was not high quality and did not taste good. Confederate soldiers usually didn’t receive much food at all especially as the war dragged on. Union troops were well fed but the food was not that much better than what the Confederates were eating.

Soldier life was not pleasant on either side during the Civil War. The old saying that an army marches on it’s stomach is very true.

Cooking Civil War Food

Cooking Civil War Food

Without Civil War food and water an army soon disintegrates into nothing more than a lot of starving people with no energy or will to fight. If a general has no food he has no army.

What Kind of Food Did They Eat During the Civil War

Civil War food supplied to soldiers of both sides was plain and monotonous. Since rations had to be transported long distances, the commissary departments relied on foods that could be preserved, so the primary ingredients available to soldiers were salted meat and canned goods.

Union Officers Eating in Camp

Union Officers Eating in Camp

Civil War Food Hardtack

Union soldiers also received a hard, unsavory cracker-like biscuit that the soldiers dubbed hardtack while Confederate soldiers were lucky if they received a good supply of cornmeal.

During battles and when food was scarce a Union soldier’s primary source of substance often came from hardtack.

Hardtack is basically bread, it’s three inches long and half an inch thick. Soldiers would often soften hardtack up by soaking it in water or coffee in order to make it easier to bite into. Hardtack is probably the most well known Civil War food.

Even if you know nothing about the American Civil War you’ve probably heard of hardtack.

Civil War Camp Kitchen

Civil War Camp Kitchen

What Was the Food Like During the Civil War

There were plenty of other Civil War food options a soldier typically had.

Salt pork was given to soldiers during the war. It was a stinky kind of blue extra salty meat, with hair, skin, dirt, and other junk left on it. It was however, a soldiers main supply of protein.

Letters from Civil War soldiers contain numerous references to bacon, but historians believe that the term bacon was used for all salt and smoked pork, not just the strips of meat that we now call “bacon”. Salted beef and jerky were also given to the soldiers.

Many ate salt beef only out of necessity. This was especially true for the Confederates. Salt beef was basically all of the very worst parts of a cow that you could think of. Parts included organs, neck and shanks, but the basic meat was pork.

Civil War soldiers were also given rice, potatoes, onions, molasses, and other non-perishable or slow to perish items, but hardtack (or cornmeal) and salt meat were favored because they were both easy to ship and easy to carry on a march or into battle.

Civil War Food Rations

Soldiers were given Civil War food rations in three-day allotments; before a march or battle, they cooked their raw food so that they could carry it with them. A canvas haversack with a removable lining was used to carry Civil War food on the move.

Although soldiers removed the lining and washed it when they had a chance, the haversacks soon smelled of old meat. Sometimes the salted meat given to the soldiers was past its prime, so they nicknamed it “salt horse”.

Naturally soldiers grew tired of this monotony. In Union camps, sutlers (civilian merchants) sold items like canned fruit, sugar, tobacco, and coffee. Confederate soldiers did not usually have sutlers stores. They were forced to rely on the generosity of local farmers for occasional treats such as fruit.

If you are interested in reading about or trying some authentic Civil War food recipes the Civil War Recipes: Receipts from the Pages of Godey’s Lady’s Book has the original recipes for a wide variety of food that people actually ate during the time of the Civil War.

Of course you might need something to cook all this wonderful food you create. The Lodge Deep Camp Dutch Oven will do that job perfectly.

Civil War Sutlers Tent

Civil War Sutlers Tent

Foraging For Food

Civil War soldiers did occasionally have fresh meat to eat. They did this by taking cattle, pigs, and sheep.

Armies would have entire herds following them while they were on campaign. When in enemy territory, soldiers frequently helped themselves to chickens, fruit, vegetables, and other items from local farms and households, considering these the spoils of war.

Commanders might reprimand soldiers for such acts, but this seldom stopped a hungry man from seeking extra food. During Sherman’s march from Atlanta to the sea, Union soldiers feasted on captured cattle, hogs, vegetables and fruit and destroyed anything they could not carry.

Civil War Meat Hanging in Tent

Civil War Meat Hanging in Tent

Civil War Food Shortages

The Union never really had any problems with food shortages. The Union had a robust transportation network which could supply their troops with everything they needed throughout the entire war.

There were occasions when Union troops didn’t receive supplies for one reason or another but typically Union troops had no trouble with food shortages.

The Confederacy was the complete opposite. The south always had food shortages during the war which only became worse the longer the war lasted. Civil War food rations in the south were given to the most important people first.

Politicians and other leaders ate first, followed by soldiers, civilians, slaves and finally captured Union soldiers located throughout the south in various Civil War prison camps received whatever food was left.

Despite their high priority to receive food Confederate soldiers often went without. The poor condition of the Confederate railroad network and overall bad transportation system meant any food that was produced had a hard time finding it’s way to the army or anyone else.

The Union blockade of southern ports also restricted any food and other supplies the Confederacy desperately needed just to survive.

When times were thin soldiers sometimes resorted to eating their horses and mules. In extreme desperation, rats were consumed. As the war continued food shortages in the Confederacy became so bad for civilians that it led to food riots throughout many southern cities.

Fruits and Vegetables 

Corn was really only available when things were going well for a particular side. The same goes for beans, as they could not be consumed uncooked or improperly cooked.

This would result in very bad stomach situations. Peas were plentiful in supply and could be eaten as a meal in times of desperation. When there were no peas around, potatoes and rice would suffice. Fresh fruits were really important to have in good supply.

Civil War Disease

Lack of fresh fruits could cause sickness and disease. One example is Scurvy which is a horrible disease that resulted in tooth loss, receding gums, night blindness, rotting lips, jaws, and cheeks, and even internal hemorrhaging.

Civil War medicine was not very advanced during the Civil War, however Scurvy was easily prevented by simply eating oranges.

Volunteer nurses and the volunteers who collected supplies back home for the soldiers tried to alleviate their monotonous diet by collecting fresh fruits and vegetables for them.

Although these items were not easy to send into the field, they were supplied in abundance to sick and wounded soldiers in northern hospitals. Southern hospital workers also did there best to get fresh food for their patients, despite wartime food shortages.

Fruit was a favorite treat for ill soldiers; Abraham Lincoln often brought gifts of fresh fruit to the soldiers at the Washington army hospital, as did poet Walt Whitman who volunteered at the hospital. Baked goods were another treat for sick soldiers.

It was not uncommon for volunteer nurses to stay up late at night baking for their sick and wounded soldiers. Gingerbread was considered nourishing and easy to digest; it was often given as a comfort Civil War food to hospital patients.

Coffee

The men in the war loved their coffee, and drank it whenever possible. Coffee was a treasured beverage during the war. Soldiers soon recognized it’s properties to keep them awake after many hours of weary duty.

Civil War Soldiers Drinking Beverages

Civil War Soldiers Drinking Beverages

Raw green coffee beans were given to Union soldiers who roasted them in a pan over an open fire. Confederates frequently had to use coffee substitutes, such as chicory or roasted acorns.

Soldiers Traded With Each Other

During lulls in the fighting Confederate and Union soldiers would often meet up with each other and trade items.

Confederates usually traded tobacco with Union soldiers who gave them coffee beans in return. Of course these trade deals had to be made in secret since fraternizing with the enemy was punishable on both sides.

Conclusion

Civil war food was extremely important during the war but it was far from a balanced diet. Not surprisingly, a poor diet along with unsanitary conditions contributed to a high disease rate among soldiers on both sides.

If we went back in time to the Civil War we would enjoy some of the familiar foods of today like gingerbread and coffee that the soldiers enjoyed. However we would also find some of the food like hardtack or salted beef rather unappetizing.

Civil War Food2020-01-18T18:35:28-05:00

Anaconda Plan

The Anaconda Plan was the Union’s strategic plan to defeat the Confederacy at the start of the American Civil War. The goal was to defeat the rebellion by blockading southern ports and controlling the Mississippi river. This would cut off and isolate the south from the outside world. The plan was developed by General Winfield Scott at the beginning of the Civil War following the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12th 1861.

General Winfield Scott during the Civil War

General Winfield Scott during the Civil War

The strategic plan would have eventually ended the Civil War, ideally with minimal casualties on both sides. It was a humanitarian way of defeating the rebellion as opposed to invading the south with massive numbers of troops, killing, burning and capturing everything in sight. General Scott’s Anaconda Plan was a very passive way of defeating the Confederacy.

The problem General Scott had with his idea wasn’t the rebels. His problem was convincing fellow Union commanders that this was a good idea. Pretty much all of the Union commanders disliked this plan and referred to it as being too complacent.

They wanted to attack the south and defeat them with the Union’s overwhelming military and industrial might. General Scott’s plan would require patience and time. The other generals wanted to crush the rebellion quickly and permanently as soon as possible.

For an in-depth look at the tactics of the Civil War a great book is the Atlas of the Civil War: A Complete Guide to the Tactics and Terrain of Battle

The Anaconda Plan Was a Good Idea

Complacent or not, the plan, if allowed full implementation and support from Northern military commanders would have saved many lives. Theoretically if the plan was implemented at the start of the war the giant battles fought later in the war may never have happened.

The south would have been slowly deprived of food and supplies by the Union blockade. Union armies would have taken up defensive positions in the North repelling any Confederate attacks. The Union would have slowly and methodically cut the Confederacy in half by taking the Mississippi river and the rebellion would have withered on the vine from a lack of food and supplies and forced to surrender.

Anaconda Plan

The Anaconda Plan drawn in 1861

The Objectives of the Anaconda Plan

The Anaconda Plan consisted of two main objectives. The first objective was to set up a naval blockade of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico ports that were controlled by the Confederacy. This would cut off all trade to and from the rebellious states. The second objective of the plan was to transport roughly 60,000 Union troops in 40 steam transports escorted by upwards of 20 steam gunboats down the Mississippi river. They would capture and hold forts and towns along the way.

They would secure the Mississippi river down to the Gulf of Mexico which would link up with and keep their lines of communication open with the naval blockade. Capturing the Mississippi river would also cut the Confederacy in half. It would not be a quick victory but given enough time it had a chance of being successful. This was a good plan but it was never given the opportunity to be put into action.

General Winfield Scott and Staff Officers

General Winfield Scott and Staff Officers

General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan was Rejected

Many people did not approve of the plan seeing it as too passive and slow to implement. President Lincoln, the Union generals, and most civilians believed all they needed to do was raise an army in Washington, invade Virginia and capture the Confederate capital of Richmond and the war would be over in a few weeks.

General George McClellan had his own plan. He wanted to raise an army of 80,000 men in Ohio (he was the military commander in Ohio at this time) and send them on an overland campaign through Virginia and capture Richmond. These ideas were rejected by General Scott in favor of the Anaconda Plan.

A book that takes a look at the Civil War using maps is The Civil War: The Story of the War with Maps

General Scott retired at the end of 1861 and his subordinate General George McClellan took over command of the Union army. The Anaconda plan was a good idea in theory however it would have been difficult for it to have actually succeeded in it’s original form. While the Union navy did set up a blockade at the start of the rebellion, it was not strong enough at the beginning of the war to adequately blockade the entire south.

The naval blockade alone would not have defeated the rebellion, even if the Union also controlled the entire Mississippi river. Confederate leaders were also not going to stand by and do nothing as the Union tried to starve them into submission. The Confederacy had a strong army and was more than capable of taking on the Union army especially at the beginning of the war.

The Anaconda Plan Revisited

The Union looked to put an end to the war as quickly and decisively as possible. The tactics that were eventually used were reminiscent of Scott’s plan yet they also involved horrific combat. After a long siege General Ulysses S. Grant captured the city of Vicksburg on July 4th 1863 giving the Union control of the Mississippi river and effectively cutting the Confederacy in two.

Abraham Lincoln with his generals

Abraham Lincoln with his generals

General William Tecumseh Sherman led his army on a rampage through the south during his march to the sea in 1864 depriving the south of vital food and materials as he and his men destroyed or captured anything that stood in their way.

This included the burning of Atlanta Georgia in 1864. These victories coupled with the big battles in the north and the always increasing strength of the Union blockade eventually forced the Confederates to go completely on the defensive. This inevitably resulted in their defeat and the crushing of the rebellion.

Whereas with General Scott’s plan for a more peaceful resolution to the rebellion, General Grant, General Sherman and the other Union commanders accomplished virtually the same things as the Anaconda plan proposed. The main difference being brutal combat and many casualties on both sides.

The original strategic plan was a failure, as it was never given the support it required to succeed. However in the end, the general framework of the plan was a major contributing factor that brought about the surrender of the Confederacy and the end of the American Civil War.

Anaconda Plan2019-11-30T19:39:37-05:00

Civil War Games

Civil War games were common on both sides during the war. Games did a lot to keep the troops entertained and ease the constant boredom of soldier life. While in camp soldiers wanted to socialize with each other, there is no better way to socialize then to play games, especially if you are living in a Civil War tent with one or more men for a long period of time.

Civil War Games in Camp

Civil War Games in Camp

Types Civil War Games

Soldiers played all kinds of Civil War card games, they made distinctive chess pieces, played checkers, backgammon, dominoes, they read newspapers, books and played horseshoes.

They also played whole team sports such as baseball and a very early often-brutal version of football. Holidays in camp were cause for large celebrations. There were foot races, feasts, horse races, music shows, and all types of different contests that were put on by the troops.

If you like the look of Civil War playing cards the U.S. Games Systems Highlander’s 1864 Cards Replica are about as realistic as you can get.

What Else Did a Civil War Soldier Do?

Both Union soldiers and Confederate soldiers did anything they could to stop the boredom they often had to endure living in camp.

Civil War Games - Playing Cards

Civil War Games – Playing Cards

Some soldiers chose not to participate in Civil War games, these were often the less educated and illiterate men. Instead of playing games they preferred to socialize, smoke or watch others play games.

Then there were the small number of soldiers who did nothing at all. They did not play games, they did not socialize. These were the loners. They kept to themselves, cooked their own meals and ate alone. They even camped alone while on the march. They would often walk off if other men were getting to loud and rowdy around them.

These men just preferred solitude or believed that soldiers should only act in a strict and disciplined manner, and did not approve of playing games or socializing while in camp. These soldiers liked guard duty since it gave them a lot of time to be alone.

Of course all of these activities could never take place when an army was on an active campaign, during a campaign leisure time was relegated to basically writing letters, sleeping and keeping your equipment in working order.

Civil War Games2019-11-30T21:37:25-05:00

Family Tree

I receive a lot of questions from people asking me about their family tree. They want to know if I can help them find any information about their family members that served in the Civil War. I always direct them to Fold3 In my opinion this is the best website to find information on family that served not just in the Civil War but in any war in United States history.

I have found a lot of information about my own relatives who fought in the Civil War. My mother’s family are from West Virginia, many of it’s citizens were Confederate sympathizers, including my great great grandfather and his three brothers who all joined the Confederate army.

They were in the 25th Virginia Infantry Regiment which was part of the Army of Northern Virginia. They were later transferred into the 62nd Virginia Mounted Infantry Regiment.

My great great grandfather and his brothers fought in most of the major battles of the Civil War. One of his brothers was wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg and another was captured there.

All four of them were captured at one point or another during the war. My great great grandfather was captured by Union forces while stealing horses for the Confederate army. He spent the last few months of the war imprisoned at Point Lookout. One of his brothers was captured, swore allegiance to the United States and then joined the Union Army.

The amount of documents available make it easy to find relatives and give you a better understanding of what their lives were like. If you are looking for information about your own family take a look at Fold3

If you are looking to find more about your ancestry and ethnicity here are two great choices

AncestryDNA: Genetic Ethnicity Test

23andMe Ancestry + Traits Service: Personal Genetic DNA Test with 1500+ Geographic Regions, Family Tree, DNA Relative Finder, and Trait Reports

However you choose to learn about your family history I do hope you find what you are looking for.

Family Tree2019-11-30T20:01:47-05:00

Civil War Music

Civil War music was extremely important to every soldier during the war. The Civil War drummer was an especially important person in the infantry.

They announced all sorts of activities on a daily basis.

In the morning the drums began to beat for reveille.

They played for morning roll call, breakfast call and sick call.

As if that wasn’t enough they were also used to announce guard duty, beginning a march and any drills that were taking place.

Drums were not just used in camp however. They were used on the battlefield as well where they played an important role.

Drums were used to signal troops to maneuver and to signal when troops would load their weapons and fire them.

Civil War Drum

Civil War Drum

While drums were very important to the infantry, the cavalry and artillery relied on buglers instead of drums for their orders.

Another type of music during the Civil War was the kind that individual soldiers made. Soldiers on both sides really liked to sing and make music. A wonderful collection of songs from the Civil War is Songs Of The Civil War

Musical instruments were commonplace in both armies. They included flutes, harmonicas, guitars, banjos, fiddles and any other instrument a soldier could either buy or maybe even make if they were creative enough.

Civil War Fife

Civil War Fife

Some of the most favorite songs of the Confederate soldiers were “The Bonnie Blue Flag”, “Lorena”, “Maryland My Maryland”, and “Dixie”.

On the other side of the line the Union troops preferred “The Battle Cry of Freedom”, “Tenting on the Old Campground”, and the “Battle Hymn of the Republic”.

Sometimes when the two armies were facing off against one another each sides respective brass band would play some of the favorite songs of the other side.

Despite the war there were still some moments of peace and respect between the armies.

Civil War Music2019-11-30T21:27:02-05:00

Civil War Spies

Civil War Spies were active on both sides during the Civil War. The Union had many more spies and were much better organized then their southern counterparts.

It was difficult for each side to detect spies in the Civil War. This was due to the fact that everyone was an American, they all looked the same and spoke the same language. The ability for a man from a northern state such as Pennsylvania to travel to a southern state and integrate into society and begin receiving information was a relatively easy task to accomplish.

Shortly before the Civil War broke out on January 1st 1861 a man named Charles P. Stone was appointed as Colonel and Inspector General of the forces in Washington D.C. He became the very first officer appointed by the United States government to defend it against secession.

He was also one of the first people to use Civil War spies in order to infiltrate and gather information about rebel groups in Maryland prior to the outbreak of the war.

To learn more about Civil War Spies take a look at Spies and Spymasters of the Civil War

Charles P. Stone

Charles P. Stone

Treachery Within the Union Army

On January 2nd Colonel Stone met with the commander of the National Rifles company Captain Schaeffer, Captain Shaeffer not knowing that Colonel Stone had just been appointed as Inspector General declared that he was going to guard the frontiers of Maryland in order to keep the Yankees from conquering the south.

These words coming from a supposedly loyal United States officer concerned Colonel Stone greatly. He admonished Captain Scheaffer for saying these things but did not pursue it further. Instead Colonel Stone inspected the National Rifles company and discovered that they numbered more than 100 men and their numbers were increasing daily.

They had rifles, howitzers, revolvers, and sabers, they had far too many weapons for a company of soldiers, and had weapons that normal infantry would not normally have. He came to find out the former Secretary of War John B. Floyd allowed Captain Schaeffer to have any weapons he wanted. Secretary of War John B. Floyd was a Confederate sympathizer and resigned from office on December 29, 1860.

Civil War Spies Infiltrate the Rebel Company

Colonel Stone decided to infiltrate a secret service agent into the company in order to determine their true intentions. The agent provided regular reports to Colonel Stone regarding Captain Scheaffer.

The agent discovered that the reason Captain Scheaffer obtained an odd assortment of weapons was because he was attempting to secretly form an independent command consisting of infantry, cavalry, and artillery units.

Colonel Stone ordered Captain Scheaffer to return the two howitzers, sabers and revolvers to the Columbian armory in Washington since an infantry unit should not have those weapons. The Captain reluctantly obeyed his orders and returned the weapons.

At the same time Captain Scheaffer was in line to be promoted to the rank of Major. Before he could be promoted Colonel Stone asked him to take an oath of allegiance to the United States. Captain Scheaffer refused to do so.

Colonel Stone then told him that he could not receive the promotion and since he refused to take the oath he stripped him of command of the National Rifles company. The company was then put under the command of a very loyal officer eliminating the threat they posed under the command of Captain Scheaffer.

Civil War Spies Infiltrate Maryland Secessionist Group

Meanwhile another secessionist group called the National Volunteers met every night in Washington D.C. This group was quickly gaining more members and discussed plans to capture the capital. Colonel Stone had a detective from New York who was able to join this group.

The detective gave Colonel Stone a report on every meeting that the group conducted which gave him a clear understanding of the groups intentions.

These two groups the National Rifles and National Volunteers were working together and planed to seize key areas in Washington D.C.

The group wanted to obtain weapons, in order to do so they had to go through Colonel Stone. The group decided to pretend to form a company of troops loyal to the Union. The leader of the group was elected as their commanding officer.

He met with Colonel Stone and asked to receive weapons. Colonel Stone stated that he would need to have a muster roll of all of the men in the company before he could issue any weapons. The commander of the group returned the following day with the list signed by each man.

Colonel Stone took the list placed it in his desk drawer and locked it. He informed the commander that he was happy to have the list and wished him a good morning. The officer took the hint and left the office promptly heading south to join the Confederacy, his group quickly disbanded without their leader.

Prior to the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in 1861 there were many threats against him. Colonel Stone was responsible for infiltrating spies into the many groups who were plotting to stop the inauguration. His spies were successful in foiling all of the plots against Abraham Lincoln and he safely arrived at his inauguration.

The work of Colonel Stone was just one example of the many instances of espionage and counter intelligence efforts performed both before and during the Civil War.

Union Spies During the Civil War

When the Civil War started there was no official Union espionage organization. Groups operated independently of each other.

The closet thing to any official spy agency in the Union was Allan Pinkerton who founded the Pinkerton Detective Agency.

Allan Pinkerton

Allan Pinkerton

In 1861 General George McClellan was put in command of the Army of the Potomac. He immediately organized a secret service force under the command of Allan Pinkerton.

To maintain secrecy Pinkerton used the alias E.J. Allen in his correspondence with General McClellan. Pinkerton and his men interrogated Confederate spies, runaway slaves, refugees, deserters, and prisoners of war.

These interrogations procured information about Confederate strength, positions, and troop movements. The information gathered by Pinkerton and his secret service was not always reliable and accurate.

For example in 1862 Pinkerton estimated that the Confederate army facing the Army of the Potomac had 150,000 men. In reality the Confederate army had around half that number.

This was one of the reasons General McClellan was so cautious in attacking the Confederates, he simply believed they were much stronger than they actually were.

Pinkerton also had agents assigned to protect President Lincoln during the war.

Confederate Civil War Spies

Early in the war the Confederates established the Confederate Signal Bureau. The signal bureau consisted of men that traveled with the army and communicated using semaphore flags and torches to convey encoded messages to commanders on the battlefield.

Belle Boyd

Confederate spy Belle Boyd

Since the men of the signal bureau were already trained in sending secret messages, the Confederate government decided to use these skills and form the Confederate Secret Service.

The Confederate Secret Service relied on spies in northern areas especially in Washington D.C. who could send information directly to the Confederate capitol in Richmond, Virginia.

The information was carried along what was known as the secret line.

Many of these Civil War spies were women who were strong supporters of the southern cause, they could also more easily infiltrate Union camps since they would not be as suspicious as a man would be.

Rose Greenhow

Confederate Spy Rose Greenhow with her daughter

They often lived in Union controlled areas, and befriended Union troops, commanders, and even politicians finding out information which was then sent to the Confederates.

Belle Boyd and Rose Greenhow were two of the most successful Confederate spies.

The information they provided to the Confederate government was very valuable.

Even the most notorious man of the Civil War John Wilkes Booth may have been in secret talks with members of the Confederate secret service in Canada, although this has never been confirmed.

John Surratt

John Surratt

The other Lincoln assassination conspirators Mary Surratt and her son John Surratt also gathered information for the Confederate government.

Civil War Spies were everywhere during the Civil War.

It was impossible to tell if someone was pro Union or pro Confederate, which made it easy for spies to infiltrate groups and gather information.

Both sides heavily employed spies and made great use of espionage during the war.

It was critical for both sides to have as much information about the enemy as possible because even the slightest edge could win or lose a battle.

Civil War Spies2019-11-30T21:10:07-05:00

Civil War Medicine

Civil War medicine was nothing like you would expect to see in today’s world. Medical care during the Civil War was rather primitive.

There are many Civil War medicine pictures which show grizzly scenes.

Suppose you’re a Civil War soldier.

It really doesn’t matter much which side, although medically speaking you were a little better off if you were a Union soldier.

Either way the last thing you want is to become sick or become wounded with anything more than a paper cut.

Since sanitation was non-existent during this period of time, any type of open wound could easily become infected leading to severe complications even death.

There were many different Civil War diseases and if you did become sick, and every soldier did at some point there were a lot of interesting techniques Civil war doctors would use to treat your illness.

The Civil War medical instruments used during the Civil War would most likely do you more harm than actually help you.

A great book detailing the brutality of the Civil War is Living Hell: The Dark Side of the Civil War this book goes into great detail describing exactly what a soldier fighting during the Civil War really experienced, it shatters all of the romantic misconceptions about the war and offers a much bleaker version of the war which most people do not generally think about.

Substances such as Mercury were used often as a treatment for all sorts of problems. If you felt sick they gave you mercury, well they gave you something called calomel which was nothing more than honey and chalk with mercury mixed into it.

Needless to say the medical community at the time was not aware of the poisonous substance they were giving their patients, even though the patients were developing tooth loss, digestive problems and even brain damage.

Now the one piece of medical technology during the Civil War that was actually quite beneficial to patients was Chloroform. This was an anesthetic that was invented during the 1840’s.

Chloroform allowed Civil War surgeons to perform their operations without a wild-eyed screaming patient on their table. It really was quite a valuable tool. And even better there were great quantities of it in both the North and the South.

Now if you were injured in battle you didn’t have a whole lot of options especially if the would was severe.

Probably the most recognizable and well known piece of medical equipment during the Civil War was the bone saw. This lovely instrument looks like a hacksaw and had only one purpose.

You know what that purpose is of course. It was used to cut off arms and legs and feet and hands. A full 75% of surgeries in the field were amputations.

The greatly improved weapon technology coupled with old Napoleonic style battle tactics led to huge amounts of casualties.

Civil War medicine was years behind the technology that caused so many deaths.

And quite frankly the doctors during that time simply did not posses much medical knowledge at all. All these things add up to one conclusion.

A huge death toll.

Civil War Medicine2019-11-30T21:30:58-05:00

Civil War

The Civil War started to take shape with the election of Abraham Lincoln on November 6, 1860. What caused the Civil War is debatable but the election of Lincoln certainly was a key factor.

This was the final straw in decades of conflict between pro and anti-slavery forces. Lincoln believes in “Free Soil.” In other words, he believes that no more states should be admitted to the Union as slave states.

On December 20, 1860 South Carolina secedes from the Union; Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas quickly follow her.

Lincoln hopes to end the rebellion quickly, although a few Northerners feel that the industrial North will get along just fine without its “backward” agricultural Southern cousins and are ready to say “good riddance” to the South.

The most vocal anti-war group in the north were the Copperheads. One of the most prominent voices of the North was Horace Greeley. When Jefferson Davis is selected as president of the Confederacy in February 1861 it’s obvious that these “insurrections” may be tough to put down, but Northerners remain confident in a quick victory.

An excellent resource on some of the more obscure events of the war is The Untold Civil War: Exploring the Human Side of War which delves into the unknown side of the war.

If you have never seen Ken Burns: The Civil War (Commemorative Edition) documentary it is by far one of the best Civil War documentaries ever made. It goes into great detail about the major events of the Civil War.

On March 4, 1861 Lincoln takes office and the next month Confederate troops fire on Federal troops guarding Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, igniting the Civil War. Surrounded, the Federal troops surrender (April 13, 1861). Within a few days, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee also secede. Lincoln blockades the Confederacy so that it cannot get supplies. The South has few factories and has relied on the North and on European manufacturers for weapons and ammunition, so Lincoln hopes the blockade will be sufficient to force the South into submission without the need of bloodshed. Like many of Lincoln’s hopes during the Civil War, this one is quickly dashed.

The South swiftly begins manufacturing its own weapons, using scrap metal and other supplies gathered by loyal Confederates and also relies on supplies smuggled in from Europe and the North. Lincoln also hopes brilliant war tactician Robert E. Lee will agree to be the Union’s chief general, but although Lee feels the South would be better off without slavery, he cannot bring himself to fight against his native Virginia and he becomes the Confederacy’s major general.

Finding a good general will be a headache for Lincoln throughout most of the Civil War. At one point, Lincoln plans war strategy himself, studying books on battle tactics late into the night, because he has little military experience. The elderly, ailing hero of the Mexican War, General Winfield C. Scott provides a strategy know as the Anaconda Plan to squeeze the South into submission, but he can’t take to the field to see his plans put into action; if “Old Fuss and Feathers” (Scott’s nickname) had been able to take the field he might have given Lee a run for his money.

Inexperienced troops lead to a disastrous first battle for the Union. The First Battle of Manassas or Bull Run occurs on July 21, 1861, by the Bull Run River outside of Manassas, Virginia. Believing Union troops will win a decisive victory, several Congressmen drive down from Washington to watch the battle and actually picnic under the trees a little apart from the battlefield. Their picnic is spoiled when Confederate Infantry reinforcements arrive and send the green Union troops into a panic. Soldiers and Congressmen run for their lives.

To discipline the Army of the Potomac’s green troops during the Civil War, Lincoln picks General George B. McClellan. The troops love “little Mac” because he genuinely cares for their welfare and they are soon a disciplined army, but “little Mac” delays beginning an offensive campaign. Lincoln complains that McClellan is too slow. He tolerates McClellan’s delays because he knows how vital troop morale and discipline are and he appoints McClellan General-in-Chief.

Few battles happen during the Civil War in the first year. In February 1862, the Union wins a decisive victory when Ulysses S. Grant and Andrew H. Foote capture Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. Union troops take Nashville by month’s end. Grant wins a promotion for his leadership and in meanwhile the slow McClellan has finally begun the Peninsular Campaign which is aimed at capturing Richmond.

In April, the battle of Shiloh devastates both sides, but the Union gains the upper hand. Shiloh is the first of many horrifically bloody battles that will occur throughout the Civil War. On April 29, Union forces occupy New Orleans; they will hold this important port for the rest of the war. A few days later, McClellan occupies Yorktown, but he delays in attempting to capture Richmond the Confederate capitol, despite Lincoln’s constant urging.

Things go poorly for the Union during several battles that summer. In July, Lincoln appoints Henry W. Halleck as General-in-Chief. It now apparent to Lincoln that his original goal of keeping the Union together is not adequate motivation to win the war; freeing the slaves will weaken the Confederacy and give the Union a nobler goal to fight for. Because of the North’s frustration with the war’s slow progress, Lincoln keeps his decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation secret, until Lee invades Maryland and Union forces push him back at Antietam (September 17, 1862).

McClellan‘s significant victory at Antietam allows Lincoln to announce the Emancipation Proclamation on a wave of Union victory; however, Antietam is McClellan’s only significant victory.

In November, Lincoln replaces him as commander of the Army of the Potomac with Ambrose E. Burnside, but Burnside is no more effective than McClellan. On January 1, 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation takes effect; unfortunately, this only frees slaves in the rebel states, since the president has no constitutional power to free slaves in the loyal states. Later in the month Lincoln replaces the ineffective Burnside with “Fighting Joe” Hooker. Hooker losses his nerve at the Battle of Chancellorsville (May1-4) and by June, Lincoln takes another step in search of the right general, replacing Hooker with George Gordon Meade.

That July, Union forces under George Gordon Meade win a decisive victory over the Confederates at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lee’s determination that his forces should win leads him to make costly mistakes. In the meanwhile, Grant’s forces have been sieging Vicksburg, a vital port which will allow the Union to regain control of the Mississippi; after six weeks of siege, the Confederates surrender Vicksburg (July 4, 1863).

Control of the Mississippi is vital to a Union victory, for the Confederacy has been smuggling supplies by it. Grant’s strategy has paid off and Scott’s Anaconda plan is beginning to squeeze the Confederacy from two sides. Union forces face bloody battles that September in Tennessee, but the tide is definitely turning in the Union’s favor.

Lincoln has finally found a general who has what it takes. In March 1864, Grant is appointed head of the Armies of the United States. Grant and his friend General William T. Sherman are not afraid to use what might seem ruthless tactics to win the Civil War; they reason that the sooner the conflict is over, the fewer lives will be lost in the long run. That May, Grant begins the campaign against Richmond the Confederate capitol, while Sherman begins his march to Atlanta, burning Confederate cities and supplies as he goes. By September, Sherman’s forces take Atlanta and burn the city after evacuating its residents. Sherman’s March to the Sea begins and by December he occupies Savannah, Georgia.

The Confederacy is dying. Hunger is plaguing civilians and soldiers alike and getting ammunition is becoming more difficult. Sherman’s march to the sea has cut the South in two, just as he and Grant had planned. Confederate representatives meet with Lincoln, but they refuse his terms of surrender. On April 3, 1865 Union forces occupy Richmond; five days later, Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Though some Confederate forces will continue to fight until early May, the Civil War is over.

Sadly, the Union’s guiding force will not live to see the aftermath of victory. Lincoln was killed while attending a play with his wife Mary Todd Lincoln at Ford’s Theater. The Lincoln Assassination occurred on April 14, the day the Union flag is once more flown over Fort Sumter, Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a fanatical Southerner.

On the day Lincoln died Edwin Stanton uttered the famous words “And now he belongs to the Ages”. With the death of Lincoln the South lost it’s best friend. Lincoln wanted to help the South with Reconstruction and warmly welcome them back into the country. Lincoln’s successors and northern Carpetbaggers would not be so forgiving.

It would take many long years before the south recovered from the devastation of the Civil War.

Civil War2019-11-30T21:54:23-05:00