Civil War Battles in Maryland

All Civil War battles in Maryland. They are in the order that they occurred during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in Maryland

Civil War Battles in Maryland


Hancock

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Romney Campaign

Location: Washington County, Maryland; Morgan County, West Virginia

Campaign: Jackson’s Operations against the B&O Railroad (January 1862)

Date(s): January 5-6, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. F.W. Lander [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 25 total

Description: On January 1, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson marched north in bitter cold from Winchester to Bath with the objective of disrupting traffic on the B&O Railroad and C&O Canal. On January 5, after skirmishing with the retiring Federals, Jackson’s force reached the Potomac River opposite the garrisoned town of Hancock, Maryland. His artillery fired on the town from Orrick’s Hill but did little damage. Union garrison commander Brig. Gen. F.W. Lander refused Jackson’s demands for surrender. Jackson continued the bombardment for two days while unsuccessfully searching for a safe river crossing. The Confederates withdrew and marched on Romney, in western Virginia, on January 7.

Result(s): Inconclusive


South Mountain

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Crampton’s, Turner’s, and Fox’s Gaps

Location: Frederick County and Washington County

Campaign: Maryland Campaign (September 1862)

Date(s): September 14, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 4,500 total

Description: After invading Maryland in September 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee divided his army to march on and invest Harpers Ferry. The Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan pursued the Confederates to Frederick, Maryland, then advanced on South Mountain. On September 14, pitched battles were fought for possession of the South Mountain passes: Crampton’s, Turner’s, and Fox’s Gaps. By dusk the Confederate defenders were driven back, suffering severe casualties, and McClellan was in position to destroy Lee’s army before it could reconcentrate. McClellan’s limited activity on September 15 after his victory at South Mountain, however, condemned the garrison at Harpers Ferry to capture and gave Lee time to unite his scattered divisions at Sharpsburg. Union general Jesse Reno and Confederate general Samuel Garland, Jr., were killed at South Mountain.

Result(s): Union victory


Antietam

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Sharpsburg

Location: Washington County

Campaign: Maryland Campaign (September 1862)

Date(s): September 16-18, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 23,100 total

Description: On September 16, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan confronted Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. At dawn September 17, Hooker’s corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee’s left flank that began the single bloodiest day in American military history. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller’s cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. Late in the day, Burnside’s corps finally got into action, crossing the stone bridge over Antietam Creek and rolling up the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill’s division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and saving the day. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, while removing his wounded south of the river. McClellan did not renew the assaults. After dark, Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Union strategic victory.)


Williamsport

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Hagerstown, Falling Waters

Location: Washington County

Campaign: Gettysburg Campaign (June-August 1863)

Date(s): July 6-16, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,730 total

Description: During the night of July 4-5, Lee’s battered army began its retreat from Gettysburg, moving southwest on the Fairfield Road toward Hagerstown and Williamsport, screened by Stuart’s cavalry. The Union infantry followed cautiously the next day, converging on Middletown, Maryland. On July 7, Imboden (CS) stopped Buford’s Union cavalry from occupying Williamsport and destroying Confederate trains. Kilpatrick’s cavalry division drove two Confederate cavalry brigades through Hagerstown before being forced to retire by the arrival of the rest of Stuart’s command. Lee’s infantry reached the rain-swollen Potomac River but could not cross, the pontoon bridge having been destroyed by a cavalry raid. On July 11, Lee entrenched a line, protecting the river crossings at Williamsport and waited for Meade’s army to advance. July 12, Meade reached the vicinity and probed the Confederate line. July 13, skirmishing was heavy along the lines as Meade positioned his forces for an attack. In the meantime, the river fell enough to allow the construction of a new bridge, and Lee’s army began crossing the river after dark on the 13th. On the morning of the 14th, Kilpatrick’s and Buford’s cavalry divisions attacked the rearguard division of Henry Heth still on the north bank, taking more than 500 prisoners. Confederate Brig. Gen. James Pettigrew was mortally wounded in the fight. On July 16, David McM. Gregg’s cavalry approached Shepherdstown where Fitzhugh Lee’s and J.R. Chambliss’s brigades, supported by M.J. Ferguson’s, held the Potomac River fords against the Union infantry. Fitzhugh Lee and Chambliss attacked Gregg, who held out against several attacks and sorties, fighting sporadically until nightfall when he withdrew.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Boonsboro

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: None

Location: Washington County

Campaign: Gettysburg Campaign (June-August 1863)

Date(s): July 8, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton [US]; Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 100 total

Description: On July 8, the Confederate cavalry, holding the South Mountain passes, fought a rearguard action against elements of the Union 1st and 3rd Cavalry Divisions and infantry. This action was one of a series of cavalry combats fought around Boonsboro, Hagerstown, and Williamsport.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Monocacy

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Battle that Saved Washington

Location: Frederick County

Campaign: Early’s Raid and Operations against the B&O Railroad (June-August 1864)

Date(s): July 9, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 2,359 total

Description: After marching north through the Shenandoah Valley from Lynchburg, the Confederate army of Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early side-stepped the Federal garrison at Harpers Ferry and crossed the Potomac River at Shepherdstown into Maryland on July 5-6. On July 9, 1864, a makeshift Union force under Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace attempted to arrest Early’s invading Confederate divisions along the Monocacy River, just east of Frederick. Wallace, joined by Ricketts’s Division of the VI Corps that had been rushed from the Petersburg lines, was outflanked by Gordon’s Division and defeated after putting up a stiff resistance. Hearing of Early’s incursion into Maryland, Grant embarked the rest of the VI Corps on transports at City Point, sending it with all dispatch to Washington. Wallace’s defeat at Monocacy bought time for these veteran troops to arrive to bolster the defenses of Washington. Early’s advance reached the outskirts of Washington on the afternoon of July 11, and the remaining divisions of the VI Corps began disembarking that evening. Monocacy was called the Battle that Saved Washington.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Folck’s Mill

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Cumberland

Location: Allegany County

Campaign: Early’s Raid and Operations against the B&O Railroad (June-August 1864)

Date(s): August 1, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Benjamin F. Kelly [US]; Brig. Gen. John McCausland [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 38 total

Description: After burning Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, on July 30, Johnson’s and McCausland’s cavalry brigades rode towards Cumberland, Maryland, to disrupt the B&O Railroad. Brig. Gen. Benjamin Kelly organized a small force of soldiers and citizens to meet the Confederate advance. On August 1, Kelly ambushed Rebel cavalrymen near Cumberland at Folck’s Mill, and skirmishing continued for several hours. Eventually the Confederates withdrew.

Result(s): Inconclusive

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