May 31st – June 1st 1862
The Battle of Seven Pines also known as The Battle of Fair Oaks happened May 31st to June 1, 1862 and was one very important battle in the Civil War. Virginia was being invaded by Union troops especially in the general vicinity of Richmond as this was the prize of the entire campaign into deep Rebel territory, the capital of the Confederacy.
The offensive was spearheaded by General George McClellan with his capable and ferocious Army of the Potomac carving a wide swath through the heart of the Rebel defenses.
The Battle of Seven Pines was a major battle in terms of the degree of high casualties and loss of equipment to the shelling and constant lead throughout the air.
The Union army was fighting to a standstill against the Confederates and this would stay this way, an even match until finally something had to give.
The Rebels attempted a few offensive thrusts into the middle section of the gigantic Union army with little affect. The Union counter attacked only twice each time being repelled and the stalemate continued.
Finally, broken and bruised both sides took advantage of a break in the action and decided what to do next. The Rebels gathered what was left of their army and headed back into the city limits of the capital, Richmond. The Union had a slim chance at ending the Civil War and they did not take advantage of it and allowed the Rebels to retreat but more importantly protect the capital from being captured.
The Union leaders made the fatal mistake of not pursuing the rebels when they had the chance and allowed their full retreat and their ultimate extension of the war.
The Battle of Seven Pines was inconclusive yet it showed the inferior leadership qualities of some of the Union generals. The main mistake that would end up seeing the Union army six miles from the capital of the Confederacy, Richmond, then two years later see the rebels fighting a mere 20 miles from the Union capital, Washington.
How did the Union brass allow the Confederates to slip away into the night then regroup with General Lee and then be pushed back past the James River? Ineffective leadership was the answer and this is the main reason that Union generals are sometime seen as inferior to their Southern counterparts.
Intelligent maneuvering like the way General Lee got the most out of each and every one of his men, while the Union generals sat on their thumbs and wondered what to do next? The indecision of the Union leaders is the main cause for so many men to have lost their lives for no reason.
If they had to do it over again it is certain that the Yankees would have gone to any extent to secure the city of Richmond even if it took another 6 moths, it would not matter.
Victory was that close. In total the Confederates lost 6,134 men while the Union lost 5,031 men. This was the largest battle in the east up until that time.