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Civil War Medicine

Civil War medicine was nothing like you would expect to see in today’s world. Medical care during the Civil War was rather primitive.

There are many Civil War medicine pictures which show grizzly scenes.

Suppose you’re a Civil War soldier.

It really doesn’t matter much which side, although medically speaking you were a little better off if you were a Union soldier.

Either way the last thing you want is to become sick or become wounded with anything more than a paper cut.

Since sanitation was non-existent during this period of time, any type of open wound could easily become infected leading to severe complications even death.

There were many different Civil War diseases and if you did become sick, and every soldier did at some point there were a lot of interesting techniques Civil war doctors would use to treat your illness.

The Civil War medical instruments used during the Civil War would most likely do you more harm than actually help you.

A great book detailing the brutality of the Civil War is Living Hell: The Dark Side of the Civil War this book goes into great detail describing exactly what a soldier fighting during the Civil War really experienced, it shatters all of the romantic misconceptions about the war and offers a much bleaker version of the war which most people do not generally think about.

Substances such as Mercury were used often as a treatment for all sorts of problems. If you felt sick they gave you mercury, well they gave you something called calomel which was nothing more than honey and chalk with mercury mixed into it.

Needless to say the medical community at the time was not aware of the poisonous substance they were giving their patients, even though the patients were developing tooth loss, digestive problems and even brain damage.

Now the one piece of medical technology during the Civil War that was actually quite beneficial to patients was Chloroform. This was an anesthetic that was invented during the 1840’s.

Chloroform allowed Civil War surgeons to perform their operations without a wild-eyed screaming patient on their table. It really was quite a valuable tool. And even better there were great quantities of it in both the North and the South.

Now if you were injured in battle you didn’t have a whole lot of options especially if the would was severe.

Probably the most recognizable and well known piece of medical equipment during the Civil War was the bone saw. This lovely instrument looks like a hacksaw and had only one purpose.

You know what that purpose is of course. It was used to cut off arms and legs and feet and hands. A full 75% of surgeries in the field were amputations.

The greatly improved weapon technology coupled with old Napoleonic style battle tactics led to huge amounts of casualties.

Civil War medicine was years behind the technology that caused so many deaths.

And quite frankly the doctors during that time simply did not posses much medical knowledge at all. All these things add up to one conclusion.

A huge death toll.

Civil War Medicine2019-11-30T21:30:58-05:00

Civil War Bayonet

The Civil War Bayonet was a sharpened piece of steel with a ring on the end that slid over the barrel of a rifle, it was then turned and locked into place.

This is called a ring bayonet, bayonets today are essentially the same as they were during the Civil War, just with different blade designs.

Soldiers in combat seldom ever used their bayonets in fighting.

They were usually only used in dire situations when they had no other options.

The effectiveness of the Civil War bayonet was more psychological then physical. Seeing hundreds of soldiers coming at you with large knives on the end of their rifles had a pretty frighting effect.

If you would like to learn all about bayonets during this time check out European Bayonets of the American Civil War

While hand to hand combat did occur, more often the enemy would run away before bayonets could be used.

Union Soldiers with Fixed Bayonets, Washington D.C. 1865

Union Soldiers with Fixed Bayonets, Washington D.C. 1865

Only about 1% of Civil War casualties were actually a result of a bayonet wound.

The vast majority of battlefield deaths and wounds were caused by the minie ball fired from a rifle.

There were however a few notable instances where the bayonet played an important role.

Civil War Bayonet Charge at Gettysburg

One of the most famous uses of bayonets in the Civil War occurred on the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg.

The Confederates were attempting to capture Little Round Top in an effort to get around the Union left flank.

Union Soldier with Civil War Bayonet

Union Soldier with Civil War Bayonet

If the Confederates were able to achieve this it would make the Union position at Gettysburg untenable and they would be forced to withdraw, giving the Confederate army under Robert E. Lee a decisive victory.

The entire battle line of the Union army at Gettysburg resembled a giant fish hook, Little Round Top is a wooded and steep hill at the very end of the Union line. The 20th Maine infantry regiment commanded by Colonel Joshua Chamberlain was the last regiment at the end of this line, there were no troops to their left, only woods.

Colonel Joshua Chamberlain

Colonel Joshua Chamberlain

It was vitally important they hold this position.

The Confederates under William C. Oates attacked the 20th Maine several times, each time being repulsed. The 20th Maine was taking heavy casualties and running out of ammunition.

Colonel Chamberlain had his men fix bayonets and ordered them to attack down the hill.

Shocked Confederates fled down the hill in panic and many of them were captured, killed and wounded. Colonel Chamberlain saved the Union left flank and received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

Civil War Bayonet as a Utility Tool

Company F, 114th Pennsylvania Infantry (Zouaves) with Fixed Bayonets

Company F, 114th Pennsylvania Infantry (Zouaves) with Fixed Bayonets

More often than not soldiers used the bayonet as an everyday tool around their camp rather than a weapon.

It was put to better use cutting meat, cooking, shaving, or any other mundane task a soldier could find use for it.

It was a great tool both on the battlefield and off.

While it wasn’t used often in combat it was certainly there and could be relied upon when a soldier needed it most.

Civil War Bayonet2019-11-30T21:49:52-05:00

Civil War

The Civil War started to take shape with the election of Abraham Lincoln on November 6, 1860. What caused the Civil War is debatable but the election of Lincoln certainly was a key factor.

This was the final straw in decades of conflict between pro and anti-slavery forces. Lincoln believes in “Free Soil.” In other words, he believes that no more states should be admitted to the Union as slave states.

On December 20, 1860 South Carolina secedes from the Union; Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas quickly follow her.

Lincoln hopes to end the rebellion quickly, although a few Northerners feel that the industrial North will get along just fine without its “backward” agricultural Southern cousins and are ready to say “good riddance” to the South.

The most vocal anti-war group in the north were the Copperheads. One of the most prominent voices of the North was Horace Greeley. When Jefferson Davis is selected as president of the Confederacy in February 1861 it’s obvious that these “insurrections” may be tough to put down, but Northerners remain confident in a quick victory.

An excellent resource on some of the more obscure events of the war is The Untold Civil War: Exploring the Human Side of War which delves into the unknown side of the war.

If you have never seen Ken Burns: The Civil War (Commemorative Edition) documentary it is by far one of the best Civil War documentaries ever made. It goes into great detail about the major events of the Civil War.

On March 4, 1861 Lincoln takes office and the next month Confederate troops fire on Federal troops guarding Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, igniting the Civil War. Surrounded, the Federal troops surrender (April 13, 1861). Within a few days, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee also secede. Lincoln blockades the Confederacy so that it cannot get supplies. The South has few factories and has relied on the North and on European manufacturers for weapons and ammunition, so Lincoln hopes the blockade will be sufficient to force the South into submission without the need of bloodshed. Like many of Lincoln’s hopes during the Civil War, this one is quickly dashed.

The South swiftly begins manufacturing its own weapons, using scrap metal and other supplies gathered by loyal Confederates and also relies on supplies smuggled in from Europe and the North. Lincoln also hopes brilliant war tactician Robert E. Lee will agree to be the Union’s chief general, but although Lee feels the South would be better off without slavery, he cannot bring himself to fight against his native Virginia and he becomes the Confederacy’s major general.

Finding a good general will be a headache for Lincoln throughout most of the Civil War. At one point, Lincoln plans war strategy himself, studying books on battle tactics late into the night, because he has little military experience. The elderly, ailing hero of the Mexican War, General Winfield C. Scott provides a strategy know as the Anaconda Plan to squeeze the South into submission, but he can’t take to the field to see his plans put into action; if “Old Fuss and Feathers” (Scott’s nickname) had been able to take the field he might have given Lee a run for his money.

Inexperienced troops lead to a disastrous first battle for the Union. The First Battle of Manassas or Bull Run occurs on July 21, 1861, by the Bull Run River outside of Manassas, Virginia. Believing Union troops will win a decisive victory, several Congressmen drive down from Washington to watch the battle and actually picnic under the trees a little apart from the battlefield. Their picnic is spoiled when Confederate Infantry reinforcements arrive and send the green Union troops into a panic. Soldiers and Congressmen run for their lives.

To discipline the Army of the Potomac’s green troops during the Civil War, Lincoln picks General George B. McClellan. The troops love “little Mac” because he genuinely cares for their welfare and they are soon a disciplined army, but “little Mac” delays beginning an offensive campaign. Lincoln complains that McClellan is too slow. He tolerates McClellan’s delays because he knows how vital troop morale and discipline are and he appoints McClellan General-in-Chief.

Few battles happen during the Civil War in the first year. In February 1862, the Union wins a decisive victory when Ulysses S. Grant and Andrew H. Foote capture Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. Union troops take Nashville by month’s end. Grant wins a promotion for his leadership and in meanwhile the slow McClellan has finally begun the Peninsular Campaign which is aimed at capturing Richmond.

In April, the battle of Shiloh devastates both sides, but the Union gains the upper hand. Shiloh is the first of many horrifically bloody battles that will occur throughout the Civil War. On April 29, Union forces occupy New Orleans; they will hold this important port for the rest of the war. A few days later, McClellan occupies Yorktown, but he delays in attempting to capture Richmond the Confederate capitol, despite Lincoln’s constant urging.

Things go poorly for the Union during several battles that summer. In July, Lincoln appoints Henry W. Halleck as General-in-Chief. It now apparent to Lincoln that his original goal of keeping the Union together is not adequate motivation to win the war; freeing the slaves will weaken the Confederacy and give the Union a nobler goal to fight for. Because of the North’s frustration with the war’s slow progress, Lincoln keeps his decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation secret, until Lee invades Maryland and Union forces push him back at Antietam (September 17, 1862).

McClellan‘s significant victory at Antietam allows Lincoln to announce the Emancipation Proclamation on a wave of Union victory; however, Antietam is McClellan’s only significant victory.

In November, Lincoln replaces him as commander of the Army of the Potomac with Ambrose E. Burnside, but Burnside is no more effective than McClellan. On January 1, 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation takes effect; unfortunately, this only frees slaves in the rebel states, since the president has no constitutional power to free slaves in the loyal states. Later in the month Lincoln replaces the ineffective Burnside with “Fighting Joe” Hooker. Hooker losses his nerve at the Battle of Chancellorsville (May1-4) and by June, Lincoln takes another step in search of the right general, replacing Hooker with George Gordon Meade.

That July, Union forces under George Gordon Meade win a decisive victory over the Confederates at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lee’s determination that his forces should win leads him to make costly mistakes. In the meanwhile, Grant’s forces have been sieging Vicksburg, a vital port which will allow the Union to regain control of the Mississippi; after six weeks of siege, the Confederates surrender Vicksburg (July 4, 1863).

Control of the Mississippi is vital to a Union victory, for the Confederacy has been smuggling supplies by it. Grant’s strategy has paid off and Scott’s Anaconda plan is beginning to squeeze the Confederacy from two sides. Union forces face bloody battles that September in Tennessee, but the tide is definitely turning in the Union’s favor.

Lincoln has finally found a general who has what it takes. In March 1864, Grant is appointed head of the Armies of the United States. Grant and his friend General William T. Sherman are not afraid to use what might seem ruthless tactics to win the Civil War; they reason that the sooner the conflict is over, the fewer lives will be lost in the long run. That May, Grant begins the campaign against Richmond the Confederate capitol, while Sherman begins his march to Atlanta, burning Confederate cities and supplies as he goes. By September, Sherman’s forces take Atlanta and burn the city after evacuating its residents. Sherman’s March to the Sea begins and by December he occupies Savannah, Georgia.

The Confederacy is dying. Hunger is plaguing civilians and soldiers alike and getting ammunition is becoming more difficult. Sherman’s march to the sea has cut the South in two, just as he and Grant had planned. Confederate representatives meet with Lincoln, but they refuse his terms of surrender. On April 3, 1865 Union forces occupy Richmond; five days later, Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Though some Confederate forces will continue to fight until early May, the Civil War is over.

Sadly, the Union’s guiding force will not live to see the aftermath of victory. Lincoln was killed while attending a play with his wife Mary Todd Lincoln at Ford’s Theater. The Lincoln Assassination occurred on April 14, the day the Union flag is once more flown over Fort Sumter, Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a fanatical Southerner.

On the day Lincoln died Edwin Stanton uttered the famous words “And now he belongs to the Ages”. With the death of Lincoln the South lost it’s best friend. Lincoln wanted to help the South with Reconstruction and warmly welcome them back into the country. Lincoln’s successors and northern Carpetbaggers would not be so forgiving.

It would take many long years before the south recovered from the devastation of the Civil War.

Civil War2019-11-30T21:54:23-05:00

Andersonville

Andersonville was a Confederate prisoner of war camp located in Sumter County in Southwestern Georgia.

The camp was officially known as Camp Sumter by the Confederate government.

The Confederates established Andersonville on February 24th 1864.

Andersonville was originally built on 17 acres of land, it was later expanded to 27 acres. The camp was surrounded by a stockade wall made of pine logs eighteen feet high with sentry boxes located every 30 yards. There was also a twelve foot outer wall.

Andersonville Prison Dead-Line

Andersonville Prison Dead-Line

There was artillery located in each of the four corners of the camp which could cover the entire camp in case of a revolt.

There was also a dead-line located 17 feet from the main wall of the stockade.

This was used to keep the prisoners away from the stockade wall. Prisoners were forbidden to go past this line, if they did they were immediately shot without warning.

The interior of the camp where the prisoners were held was 1,540 feet long and 750 feet wide.

The camp was built to hold a maximum of 10,000 prisoners.

Living Conditions at Andersonville

Andersonville was built on a very good piece of land. This land was perfectly suitable to hold a large number of men for an extended period of time. It was located in a good climate, and had plenty of clean flowing water provided by a stream that flowed through the camp. It also had small trees that could afford people protection from the sun.

When the camp opened it easily held the first Union prisoners. This did not last long as more and more prisoners began to arrive. In April 1864 the camp reached it’s capacity of 10,000 men and it continued to rise.

Andersonville Prison, August 17th 1864

Andersonville Prison, August 17th 1864

In August 1864 the camp was holding 32,899 prisoners. This was far beyond anything the camp could sustain.

The trees were gone, cut down by the prisoners and used to fuel fires or to make huts for the men to live in.

With the removal of the trees the men had no protection from the hot Georgia sun. They resorted to digging holes in the ground and living in them covered by makeshift tents.

The clean water from the stream that flowed through the camp became a slow running sludge filled cesspool with all sorts of disgusting things such as human excrement, filth, maggots and other vile things. It was not fit for drinking and it spread disease throughout the entire camp.

There were also an abundance of fleas and mosquitoes which attacked the men at night leaving them covered with large bite marks all over their faces and bodies. This made life miserable for not only the prisoners but the Confederate guards as well.

Food at Andersonville

Food was scarce in the camp. The Union’s constant attacks made life very difficult for the entire Confederacy. The Union army burned and looted anything of any value they came across, they had a naval blockade which cut off any outside shipments of food or medicine, and they halted all large scale prisoner exchanges since the Confederates would not agree to exchange black soldiers.

Andersonville Prison, Men Receiving Rations

Andersonville Prison, Men Receiving Rations

These things made it virtually impossible for the Confederacy to properly take care of it’s prisoners. The men in Andersonville were on a starvation diet.

The Confederate authorities could barely provide adequate provisions for their own troops. They did not take much interest in providing food for the prisoners.

The Confederate government saw the prisoners as aiding the federal government who were trying to inflict great pain on the people of the south, so they were not terribly sympathetic to their problems.

Prisoner Run Government

Within the confines of Andersonville the Confederates did not bother the men, they did not enforce laws, they did not regulate anything and they did not protect the prisoners. The Confederate army was stretched very thin at this point in the war and did not have the manpower to properly man prisoner of war camps.

The guards that were there generally were unfit for regular military service. They were either too old, too young, or unable to fight due to wounds they received previously.

The Confederate guards simply stood in their guard towers and oversaw the camp. Their only job was to put down a revolt and make sure no prisoners escaped.

Andersonville Prison Northwest View, August 17th 1864

Andersonville Prison Northwest View, August 17th 1864

The prisoners were left to govern and protect themselves. A few prisoners in the camp were very bad people, which resulted in a lot of crime.

These men would prey on the weak and sick, they would steal from them, beat them, and even murder them just to obtain a small piece of food or clothing. People were even killed at night while they slept.

This small group of prisoners terrorized the rest of the men in the camp.

In July 1864 the other prisoners rose up against this group. They attacked and captured six of the worst offenders and put them on trial. These men were found guilty of theft and murder and were condemned to death.

The six men were all hanged on the same day while thousands of their fellow inmates watched their execution.

The Confederates did nothing to intervene and allowed the trial and execution to take place without any interference.

Andersonville Prisoners Join the Confederate Army

In the middle of 1864 the Confederate government desperately needed more men. They offered the Union prisoners the chance to join the Confederate army.

In return they would be released from prison, given food, clothing, and treated like other Confederate soldiers.

Andersonville Prison Southeast View, August 17th 1864

Andersonville Prison Southeast View, August 17th 1864

Some Union prisoners took this offer and joined the Confederate ranks.

These men joined the Confederate army for two reasons.

First it gave them a great opportunity to get out of the miserable conditions of the camp, a place where they were unlikely to survive until the end of the war.

Second it gave these Union prisoners a chance to escape.

On December 28th 1864 the Battle of Egypt Station in Mississippi took place.

The night before the battle six rebel soldiers went over to the Union line and surrendered. They claimed to be Union soldiers that were captured and sent to Andersonville.

They had joined the Confederate army in order to escape. They told their captors that many of the Confederate soldiers the Union would be fighting the next day were also prisoners who joined the Confederate army.

These men explained that the Confederates would not put up much of a fight and would surrender quickly.

The men were eager to rejoin their regiments and continue the fight against the Confederates.

At the beginning of the battle on December 28th Union cavalry began to advance on the Confederate line. Confederate skirmishes opened fire on these troops killing three officers, twenty soldiers, and wounding 74 other troops.

Andersonville Prison South View, August 17th 1864

Andersonville Prison South View, August 17th 1864

Responding to this attack Union cavalry charged the Confederates who quickly threw down their weapons and surrendered. 254 Confederate soldiers were taken prisoner.

The Confederates immediately claimed to be Union soldiers who joined the rebel army in order to escape.

It was determined after an investigation that these men did not intend to escape based on their actions during the battle.

Since they were placed in front of the main Confederate line as skirmishers they could easily have entered Union lines and surrendered, which they did not do.

They also took deliberate aim at Union soldiers killing and wounding them. If they truly intended to rejoin the Union army they would have intentionally missed when they fired.

For these reasons they were charged with desertion. The six soldiers that surrendered the night before the battle were allowed to rejoin their old regiments since they were sincere in their efforts to escape the Confederacy and provided valuable information to Union authorities prior to the battle.

Andersonville Commandant Henry Wirz

Henry Wirz became commandant of Andersonville in April 1864.

Henry Wirz was cruel and very tough with the prisoners under his command. He was responsible for the conditions in the camp, which were horrible. While not entirely his fault the blame still fell on him.

Execution of Henry Wirz, November 10th 1865

Execution of Henry Wirz, November 10th 1865

Andersonville was liberated by Union troops and shutdown on May 22nd 1865.

On August 23rd 1865 Henry Wirz was put on trial by the federal government. Many former Andersonville prisoners testified against Henry Wirz. They accused him of torturing and murdering inmates. He was even accused of having prisoners ripped apart by dogs.

It is debatable whether these accusations were entirely true or not. Regardless Henry Wirz was found guilty of war crimes and sentenced to death.

He was hanged on November 10th 1865 at the Old Capital Prison in Washington D.C.

Total Death Toll at Andersonville

More than 100 prisoners died per day as a result of a lack of food and the abundance of diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, scurvy and many other ailments.

Union prisoners were ordered to carry the bodies of their comrades outside of the wall. The bodies were then transported by cart a quarter mile away to a cemetery.

The bodies were buried in trenches side by side about three feet deep.

Wood was so scarce at the camp that coffins could not be made for the dead, so they were simply placed in a hole that was dug for them.

On July 26th 1865 James M. Moore the assistant quartermaster for the United States army began the task of exhuming and identifying all of the bodies buried outside of the prison.

The total number of Union soldiers that died at Andersonville prison camp was 12,912.

Of these, 12,461 were identified. 451 could not be identified and were listed as unknown soldiers.

Some of these men were murdered however the vast majority of them died from disease and starvation.

Andersonville2019-11-30T22:02:00-05:00

Bleeding Kansas

(1854-1861)

Bleeding Kansas was the result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in 1854. This act superseded the Missouri Compromise of 1820.

Under this act it was up to the settlers in Kansas to vote and decide if they wanted to allow slavery or not allow slavery.

Since Kansas borders Missouri many pro-slavery people began moving to Kansas from Missouri. Anti-slavery settlers also begin moving to Kansas coming primarily from northern states.

These people were called free-soil settlers and they also included abolitionist who were fanatically against slavery.

The Pro-slavery and free-soil settlers could never get along with each other. Violence soon began to break out between the two groups.

If you would like to learn more about Bleeding Kansas read Bleeding Kansas: Contested Liberty in the Civil War Era

Since the Kansas-Nebraska Act enabled the people who lived in the territory to decide if Kansas would be a free state or slave state each side scrambled to get as many people into the territory as possible so they could win the vote which would decide the future of Kansas.

Bleeding Kansas

Bleeding Kansas

Each side also setup their own government in the territory with the free-soil settlers capital in Lawrence and the pro-slavery capital in Lecompton only a few miles away. United States President Franklin Pierce only recognized the pro slavery capital.

The Free-soil settlers simply wanted to live in peace and work their land, slavery was of no concern to them but they did not want it anywhere near them. These were farmers who wanted the land for themselves. Free-soil settlers were just as racist as the pro-slavery settlers and they knew that plantations near them meant less land and more African Americans, this was the reason they fought so hard against the pro-slavery settlers.

Bleeding Kansas is Similar to Another Conflict

The fight between the groups in Kansas is very similar to the fight in later decades between the homesteaders and the cattle barons out west. Homesteaders wanted land that they could fence in and farm or raise livestock while the cattle barons wanted open spaces so they could freely move their cattle across the country. Fences prevented the cattle barons from using the land.

In both instances it was all about the land and who controlled it.

It was only the abolitionists led by people such as John Brown who truly despised the entire institution of slavery and who fought for the freedom of all slaves. The abolitionists were a small fringe group and only made up a small percentage of the people in Kansas.

Free-soil settlers far outnumbered both abolitionists and pro-slavery settlers.

Bleeding Kansas Gets Violent

There was sporadic violence in the territory until on May 21st 1856 pro-slavery men attacked and ransacked the free-soil capital of Lawrence.

This was a coordinated attack against a free-soil town. It caused a lot of damage, the pro-slavery men burned many buildings down including the hotel and newspaper building.

On May 24th 1856 in retaliation a small group of Abolitionist led by John Brown attacked and murdered five pro-slavery settlers which came to be known as the Pottawatomie massacre.

The last major act of violence in Kansas took place on May 19th 1858 when eleven free-soil settlers were kidnapped by thirty pro-slavery men from Missouri. The free-soil men were taken to a ravine where they were shot. Five of the men were killed, five were wounded, and one escaped without being harmed. This event took place near the Marais des Cygnes river and is remembered as the Marais des Cygnes massacre.

Bleeding Kansas was finally resolved with the start of the Civil War in 1861. After the southern states seceded from the Union Kansas was formally declared a free state and joined the United States.

Approximately 56 people were killed resulting from the events of Bleeding Kansas.

Bleeding Kansas2019-11-30T21:57:51-05:00

Albert Sidney Johnston

(1803-1862)

Albert Sidney Johnston was born on February 2nd 1803 in Washington, Kentucky. At the outbreak of the Civil War he immediately resigned his commission in the United States army and promptly joined the Confederate army.

He was given the rank of full general. A rank held only by a handful of other officers. He had dedicated almost his entire adult life to military service.

He had been involved with several wars over his career, such as the Black Hawk War, Texas Revolution, the Mexican-American War and the Utah War in which he led the army that put down a Mormon revolt in Utah. He was regarded at the beginning of the Civil War as the best general in either army.

To learn more about Albert Sidney Johnston take a look at Albert Sidney Johnston: Soldier of Three Republics

Albert Sidney Johnston was second in command of the entire Confederate army. Confederate president Jefferson Davis gave Johnston command of Confederate Department No. 2 which was a huge area that covered the entire western theater of the Civil War. His command stretched from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River. It was a vast territory that was extremely difficult to guard against attack.

Albert Sidney Johnston

Albert Sidney Johnston (1803-1862)

Unfortunately for the Confederacy things did not go very well for them in the west. They were defeated at the Battle of Mill Springs in Kentucky on January 19th 1862. In February 1862 Union General Ulysses S. Grant attacked and captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. Losing these forts was a devastating blow to the Confederates since they guarded the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers.

These forts were the responsibility of General Johnston and he failed to keep them protected. It is hard however to blame General Johnston for these defeats, the Confederates were outnumbered, had to defend a large territory, and they were always short of supplies and food. General Johnston did the best he could with what he had.

In March 1862 the Union’s objective was Corinth Mississippi.

General Johnston focused his 44,000 strong army at Corinth in order to protect the rail lines which were vital to the region for supply and communication, which the Union was trying to cut. Two Union armies were converging in order to attack the Confederacy in the west and deal a devastating defeat to the rebels. One army with 40,000 men was led by General Grant and the other with 20,000 men was led by General Don Carlos Buell. Once they joined each other they would be an unstoppable force that the Confederates would have little hope in defeating.

Albert Sidney Johnston

Albert Sidney Johnston

In March 1862 General Grant and his army landed at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee where they set up a base of operations only 22 miles from Corinth Mississippi. There they waited for the arrival of General Buell and his army. General Johnston saw an opportunity to attack the Union army before they were able to join together and hopefully inflict a devastating defeat on them.

Albert Sidney Johnston Death

Albert Sidney Johnston went on to lead the Confederate troops that attacked the Union army at Pittsburg Landing on April 6th 1862. This battle is better known as the Battle of Shiloh.

The first day of fighting went very well for Confederate forces, they pushed the Union army back inflicting great losses on them. While leading his troops on horseback during an attack General Johnston suddenly fainted and slumped over in his saddle. His men quickly removed him from his horse, assuming he was wounded.

They frantically searched his body looking for a wound. It was only after someone noticed his boot was full of blood that they realized he had been struck behind his knee. Johnston not thinking the wound was serious ignored it and continued to lead his men. The would was very serious and he could not be saved. He bled to death minutes later. He was the highest ranking officer from either side of the Civil War to be killed in combat.

Albert Sidney Johnston2019-11-30T22:11:02-05:00

Civil War Battles in Georgia

There were many battles in the state of Georgia during the Civil War.

Most of the battles were fought near Atlanta and in the Northwestern part of the state.

The battle of Chickamauga was fought in Georgia in 1863 resulting in a Confederate victory.

However the most famous event that took place in Georgia was Union general William T. Sherman’s march to the sea in late 1864.

Sherman is also famous for the capturing and burning of Atlanta in 1864 which began his march to the sea.

During Sherman’s march to the sea the Union forces destroyed everything of value that they found.

This included ripping up railroad tracks, stealing food and burning anything that the Confederates could use against them.

The southerners tried to stop the march but were unable to do so.

The march finally ended when the Union army arrived in Savannah Georgia.

Below are all Civil War battles in Georgia.

They are in the order in which they occurred during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Civil War Battles in Georgia


Fort Pulaski

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Chatham County

Campaign: Operations against Fort Pulaski (1862)

Date(s): April 10-11, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. David Hunter and Capt. Quincy A. Gillmore [US]; Col. Charles H. Olmstead [CS]

Forces Engaged: The Port Royal Expeditionary Force’s Fort Pulaski investment troops [US]; Fort Pulaski Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 365 total (US 1; CS 364)

Description: Fort Pulaski, built by the U.S. Army before the war, is located near the mouth of the Savannah River, blocking upriver access to Savannah. Fortifications such as Pulaski, called third system forts, were considered invincible, but the new technology of rifled artillery changed that. On February 19, 1862, Brig. Gen. Thomas W. Sherman ordered Captain Quincy A. Gillmore, an engineer officer, to take charge of the investment force and begin the bombardment and capture of the fort. Gillmore emplaced artillery on the mainland southeast of the fort and began the bombardment on April 10 after Colonel Charles H. Olmstead refused to surrender the fort. Within hours, Gillmor’s rifled artillery had breached the southeast scarp of the fort, and he continued to exploit it. Some of his shells began to damage the traverse shielding the magazine in the northwest bastion. Realizing that if the magazine exploded the fort would be seriously damaged and the garrison would suffer severe casualties, Olmstead surrendered after 2:00 pm on April 11.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort McAllister I

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Bryan County

Campaign: Naval Attacks on Fort McAllister (1863)

Date(s): March 3, 1863

Principal Commanders: Capt. P. Drayton, U.S.N. [US]; Capt. George A. Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Union Navy Flotilla [US]; Fort McAllister Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Rear Adm. Samuel F. Du Pont [US] ordered three ironclads, Patapsco, Passaic, and Nahant, to test their guns and mechanical appliances and practice artillery firing by attacking Fort McAllister, then a small three-gun earthwork battery. On March 3, 1863, the three ironclads conducted an eight-hour bombardment. The bombardment did not destroy the battery but did some damage, while the three ironclads received some scratches and dents. The tests were helpful for knowledge and experience gained, but the fort did not fall, showing that the ironclads firepower could not destroy an earthen fort.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Davis Cross Roads

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: Dug Gap

Location: Dade County and Walker County

Campaign: Chickamauga Campaign (1863)

Date(s): September 10-11, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James Negley [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas C. Hindman and Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two divisions [US]; unknown [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: After the Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed his offensive, aiming to force the Rebels out of Chattanooga. The three corps comprising Rosecrans’s army split and set out for Chattanooga by separate routes. Hearing of the Union advance, Braxton Bragg concentrated troops around Chattanooga. While Col. John T. Wilder’s artillery fired on Chattanooga, Rosecrans attempted to take advantage of Bragg’s situation and ordered other troops into Georgia. They raced forward, seized the important gaps, and moved out into McLemore’s Cove. Negley’s XIV Army Corps division, supported by Brig. Gen. Absalom Baird’s division, was moving across the mouth of the cove on the Dug Gap road when Negley learned that Rebels were concentrating around Dug Gap. Moving through determined resistance, he closed on the gap, withdrawing to Davis Cross Roads in the evening of September 10 to await the supporting division. Bragg had ordered General Hindman with his division to assault Negley at Davis Cross Roads in the flank, while Maj. Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne’s division forced its way through Dug Gap to strike Negley in front. Hindman was to receive reinforcements for this movement, but most of them did not arrive. The Rebel officers, therefore, met and decided that they could not attack in their present condition. The next morning, however, fresh troops did arrive, and the Rebels began to move on the Union line. The supporting Union division had, by now, joined Negley, and, hearing of a Confederate attack, the Union forces determined that a strategic withdrawal to Stevens Gap was in order. Negley first moved his division to the ridge east of West Chickamauga Creek where it established a defensive line. The other division then moved through them to Stevens Gap and established a defensive line there. Both divisions awaited the rest of Maj. Gen. George Thomas’s corps. All of this was accomplished under constant pursuit and fire from the Confederates.

Result(s): Union strategic victory


Chickamauga

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Catoosa County and Walker County

Campaign: Chickamauga Campaign (1863)

Date(s): September 18-20, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans and Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg and Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: The Army of the Cumberland [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 34,624 total (US 16,170; CS 18,454)

Description: After the Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed his offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga. The three army corps comprising Rosecrans’s army split and set out for Chattanooga by separate routes. In early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Bragg’s army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Davis Cross Roads. Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecrans’s army, defeat them, and then move back into the city. On the 17th he headed north, intending to meet and beat the XXI Army Corps. As Bragg marched north on the 18th, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles. Fighting began in earnest on the morning of the 19th, and Bragg’s men hammered but did not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg continued his assault on the Union line on the left, and in late morning, Rosecrans was informed that he had a gap in his line. In moving units to shore up the supposed gap, Rosencrans created one, and James Longstreet’s men promptly exploited it, driving one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, from the field. George H. Thomas took over command and began consolidating forces on Horseshoe Ridge and Snodgrass Hill. Although the Rebels launched determined assaults on these forces, they held until after dark. Thomas then led these men from the field leaving it to the Confederates. The Union retired to Chattanooga while the Rebels occupied the surrounding heights.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Ringgold Gap

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Catoosa County

Campaign: Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign (1863)

Date(s): November 27, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US]; Maj. Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne [CS]

Forces Engaged: Three divisions [US]; one division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 912 total (US 432; CS 480)

Description: Following the Union victory at Missionary Ridge and the Rebel retreat, Yankee troops set out in pursuit. Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburne’s command fell back to Ringgold Gap where the Western & Atlantic Railroad passed through Taylor’s Ridge. Maj. Gen. Joseph B. Hooker sent his force forward to seize the ridge, which it failed to do after five hours of heavy fighting.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Dalton I

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Whitfield County

Campaign: Demonstration on Dalton (1864)

Date(s): February 22-27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Cumberland [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: From Vicksburg, Mississippi, Sherman launched a campaign to take the important railroad center at Meridian and, if the situation was favorable, to push on to Selma and threaten Mobile, in order to prevent the shipment of Confederate men and supplies. To counter the threat, Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered troops into the area. While these operations unfolded, Thomas determined to probe Gen. Johnston’s army in the hope that Johnston’s loss of two divisions, sent to reinforce Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk as he withdrew from Meridian to Demopolis, Alabama, would make him vulnerable. Skirmishing and intense fighting occurred throughout the demonstration. At Crow Valley on the 25th, Union troops almost turned the Rebel right flank, but ultimately it held. On the 27th, Thomas’s army withdrew, realizing that Johnston was ready and able to counter any assault.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Rocky Face Ridge

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: Combats at Buzzard Roost, Mill Creek, Dug Gap

Location: Whitfield County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 7-13, 1864

Principal Commanders:Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston had entrenched his army on the long, high mountain of Rocky Face Ridge and eastward across Crow Valley. As Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman approached, he decided to demonstrate against the position with two columns while he sent a third one through Snake Creek Gap, to the right, to hit the Western & Atlantic Railroad at Resaca. The two columns engaged the enemy at Buzzard Roost (Mill Creek Gap) and at Dug Gap. In the meantime, the third column, under Maj. Gen. James Birdseye McPherson, passed through Snake Creek Gap and on the 9th advanced to the outskirts of Resaca where it found Confederates entrenched. Fearing defeat, McPherson pulled his column back to Snake Creek Gap. On the 10th, Sherman decided to take most of his men and join McPherson to take Resaca. The next morning, Sherman’s army withdrew from in front of Rocky Face Ridge. Discovering Sherman’s movement, Johnston retired south towards Resaca on the 12th.

Result(s): Union victory (Union casualties were high, but they did force the Confederates off Rocky Face Ridge.)


Resaca

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Gordon County and Whitfield County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 13-15, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 5,547 total (US 2,747; CS 2,800)

Description: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston had withdrawn from Rocky Face Ridge to the hills around Resaca. On the 13th, the Union troops tested the Rebel lines to pinpoint their whereabouts. The next day full scale fighting occurred, and the Union troops were generally repulsed except on the Rebel right flank where Sherman did not fully exploit his advantage. On the 15th, the battle continued with no advantage to either side until Sherman sent a force across the Oostanula River, at Lay’s Ferry, towards Johnston’s railroad supply line. Unable to halt this Union movement, Johnston was forced to retire.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Adairsville

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Bartow County and Gordon County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 17, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 200; CS unknown)

Description: Following the Battle of Resaca, May 13-15, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s army retreated southward while Sherman pursued. Failing to find a good defensive position south of Calhoun, Johnston continued to Adairsville while the Rebel cavalry fought a skillful rearguard action. On the 17th, skirmish fire continued throughout the day and into the early evening. Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard’s IV Corps ran into entrenched infantry of Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee’s corps, while advancing, about two miles north of Adairsville. The 44th Illinois and 24th Wisconsin (under the command of Maj. Arthur MacArthur, father of Douglas) attacked Cheatham’s Division at Robert Saxon (the Octagon House) and incurred heavy losses. Three Union divisions prepared for battle, but Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas halted them due to the approach of darkness. Sherman then concentrated his men in the Adairsville area to attack Johnston the next day. Johnston had originally expected to find a valley at Adairsville of suitable width to deploy his men and anchor his line with the flanks on hills. The valley, however, was too wide, so Johnston disengaged and withdrew.

Result(s): Confederate delaying action (Allowed Johnston to bait a trap at Cassville.)


New Hope Church

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Paulding County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 25-26, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman and Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 1,600; CS unknown)

Description: After Johnston retreated to Allatoona Pass on May 19-20, Sherman decided that he would most likely pay dearly for attacking Johnston there, so he determined to move around Johnston’s left flank and steal a march toward Dallas. Johnston anticipated Sherman’s move and met the Union forces at New Hope Church. Sherman mistakenly surmised that Johnston had a token force and ordered Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker’s corps to attack. This corps was severely mauled. On the 26th, both sides en-trenched, and skirmishing continued throughout the day. Actions the next day in this area are discussed under Pickett’s Mills.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Dallas

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: New Hope Church, Pumpkinvine Creek

Location: Paulding County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 26-June 1, 1864 (May 28, 1864)

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 5,400 total (US 2,400; CS 3,000)

Description: Johnston’s army fell back from the vicinity of Cassville-Kinston, first to Allatoona Pass and then to the Dallas area and entrenched. Sherman’s army tested the Rebel line while entrenching themselves. The Battle of Dallas occurred on May 28 when Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee’s corps probed the Union defensive line, held by Maj. Gen. John A. Logan’s Army of the Tennessee corps, to exploit any weakness or possible withdrawal. Fighting ensued at two different points, but the Rebels were repulsed, suffering high casualties. Sherman continued looking for a way around Johnston’s line, and, on June 1, his cavalry occupied Allatoona Pass, which had a railroad and would allow his men and supplies to reach him by train. Sherman abandoned his lines at Dallas on June 5 and moved toward the railhead at Allatoona Pass forcing Johnston to follow soon afterwards.

Result(s): Union victory


Pickett’s Mill

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: New Hope, New Hope Church

Location: Paulding County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard [US]; Maj. Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne [CS]

Forces Engaged: IV Corps [US]; Cleburne’s Division and Brig. Gen. John H. Kelly’s Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,100 total (US 1,600; CS 500)

Description: After the Union defeat at New Hope Church, Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman ordered Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard to attack Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s seemingly exposed right flank. The Confederates were ready for the attack, which did not unfold as planned because supporting troops never appeared. The Rebels repulsed the attack causing high casualties.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Marietta [Operations]

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: Marietta Operations

Battles Associated with the Operations: Brushy Mountain, Gilgal Church, Lost Mountain, Mcaffee’s Cross Road, Mud Creek, Neal Dow Station, Noonday Creek, Pine Hill, Pine Mountain, Rottenwood Creek, Ruff’s Mill

Location: Cobb County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): June 9-July 3, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: During the Atlanta Campaign, Sherman maneuvered Johnston’s Confederate army out of several successive defensive positions in Cobb County. This strategy spared the Union army from making costly frontal attacks on the well-situated Confederates.

Sherman first found Johnston’s army entrenched in the Marietta area on June 9. The Confederate’s had established defensive lines along Brushy, Pine, and Lost Mountains. Sherman extended his forces beyond the Confederate lines, causing a partial Rebel withdrawal to another line of positions. After further pressure and skirmishing from Union forces, Johnston withdrew to an arc-shaped position centered on Kennesaw Mountain on June 18 and 19. Sherman made some unsuccessful attacks on this position but eventually extended the line on his right and forced Johnston to withdrawal from the Marietta area on July 2-3.

Result(s): Union victory


Kolb’s Farm

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Cobb County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): June 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield and Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US]; Lt. Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two corps [US]; Hood s Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,350 total (US 350; CS 1,000)

Description: On the night of June 18-19, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, fearing envelopment, moved his army to a new, previously selected position astride Kennesaw Mountain, an entrenched arc-shaped line to the west of Marietta, to protect his supply line, the Western & Atlantic Railroad. Having encountered entrenched Rebels astride Kennesaw Mountain stretching southward, Sherman fixed them in front and extended his right wing to envelop their flank and menace the railroad. Joe Johnston countered by moving John B. Hood’s corps from the left flank to the right on June 22. Arriving in his new position at Mt. Zion Church, Hood decided, on his own, to attack. Warned of Hood’s intentions, Union generals John Schofield and Joseph Hooker entrenched. Union artillery and swampy terrain thwarted Hood’s attack and forced him to withdraw with costly casualties. Although the victor, Sherman’s attempts at envelopment had momentarily failed.

Result(s): Union victory


Kennesaw Mountain

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Cobb County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): June 27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 4,000 total (US 3,000; CS 1,000)

Description: On the night of June 18-19, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, fearing envelopment, withdrew his army to a new, previously selected position astride Kennesaw Mountain. This entrenched arc-shaped line, to the north and west of Marietta, protected the Western & Atlantic Railroad, the supply link to Atlanta. Having defeated General John B. Hood troops at Kolb’s Farm on the 22nd, Sherman was sure that Johnston had stretched his line too thin and, therefore, decided on a frontal attack with some diversions on the flanks. On the morning of June 27, Sherman sent his troops forward after an artillery bombardment. At first, they made some headway overrunning Confederate pickets south of the Burnt Hickory Road, but attacking an enemy that was dug in was futile. The fighting ended by noon, and Sherman suffered high casualties.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Peachtree Creek

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): July 20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Cumberland [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 6,506 total (US 1,710; CS 4,796)

Description: Under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the Army of Tennessee had retired south of Peachtree Creek, an east to west flowing stream, about three miles north of Atlanta. Sherman split his army into three columns for the assault on Atlanta with George H. Thomas’s Army of the Cumberland moving from the north. Johnston had decided to attack Thomas, but Confederate President Jefferson Davis relieved him of command and appointed John B. Hood to take his place. Hood attacked Thomas after his army crossed Peachtree Creek. The determined assault threatened to overrun the Union troops at various locations. Ultimately, though, the Yankees held, and the Rebels fell back.

Result(s): Union victory


Atlanta

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): July 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. John Bell Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 12,140 total (US 3,641; CS 8,499)

Description: Following the Battle of Peachtree Creek, Hood determined to attack Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee. He withdrew his main army at night from Atlanta’s outer line to the inner line, enticing Sherman to follow. In the meantime, he sent William J. Hardee with his corps on a fifteen-mile march to hit the unprotected Union left and rear, east of the city. Wheeler’s cavalry was to operate farther out on Sherman’s supply line, and Gen. Frank Cheatham’s corps were to attack the Union front. Hood, however, miscalculated the time necessary to make the march, and Hardee was unable to attack until afternoon. Although Hood had outmaneuvered Sherman for the time being, McPherson was concerned about his left flank and sent his reserves Grenville Dodge’s XVI Army Corps to that location. Two of Hood’s divisions ran into this reserve force and were repulsed. The Rebel attack stalled on the Union rear but began to roll up the left flank. Around the same time, a Confederate soldier shot and killed McPherson when he rode out to observe the fighting. Determined attacks continued, but the Union forces held. About 4:00 pm, Cheatham’s corps broke through the Union front at the Hurt House, but Sherman massed twenty artillery pieces on a knoll near his headquarters to shell these Confederates and halt their drive. Maj. Gen. John A. Logan’s XV Army Corps then led a counterattack that restored the Union line. The Union troops held, and Hood suffered high casualties.

Result(s): Union victory


Ezra Church

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: Battle of the Poor House

Location: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): July 28, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee [US]; two corps of Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,562 total (US 562; CS 3,000)

Description: Earlier, Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s forces had approached Atlanta from the east and north. Hood had not defeated them, but he had kept them away from the city. Sherman now decided to attack from the west. He ordered the Army of the Tennessee, commanded by Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard, to move from the left wing to the right and cut Hood’s last railroad supply line between East Point and Atlanta. Hood foresaw such a maneuver and determined to send the two corps of Lt. Gen. Stephen D. Lee and Lt. Gen. Alexander P. Stewart to intercept and destroy the Union force. Thus, on the afternoon of July 28, the Rebels assaulted Howard at Ezra Church. Howard had anticipated such a thrust, entrenched one of his corps in the Confederates path, and repulsed the determined attack, inflicting numerous casualties. Howard, however, failed to cut the railroad.

Result(s): Union victory


Utoy Creek

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): August 5-7, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Ohio [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: After failing to envelop Hood’s left flank at Ezra Church, Sherman still wanted to extend his right flank to hit the railroad between East Point and Atlanta. He transferred John M. Schofield’s Army of the Ohio from his left to his right flank and sent him to the north bank of Utoy Creek. Although Schofield’s troops were at Utoy Creek on August 2, they, along with the XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, did not cross until the 4th. Schofield’s force began its movement to exploit this situation on the morning of the 5th, which was initially successful. Schofield then had to regroup his forces, which took the rest of the day. The delay allowed the Rebels to strengthen their defenses with abatis, which slowed the Union attack when it restarted on the morning of the 6th. The Federals were repulsed with heavy losses by Bate’s Division and failed in an attempt to break the railroad. On the 7th, the Union troops moved toward the Confederate main line and entrenched. Here they remained until late August.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Dalton II

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Whitfield County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): August 14-15, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman [US]; Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler [CS]

Forces Engaged: District of Etowah [US]; Wheeler’s cavalry force [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler and his cavalry raided into North Georgia to destroy railroad tracks and supplies. They approached Dalton in the late afternoon of August 14 and demanded the surrender of the garrison. The Union commander, Col. Bernard Laibolt, refused to surrender and fighting ensued. Greatly outnumbered, the Union garrison retired to fortifications on a hill outside the town where they successfully held out, although the attack continued until after midnight. Skirmishing continued throughout the night. Around 5:00 am, on the 15th, Wheeler retired and became engaged with relieving infantry and cavalry under Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman’s command. Eventually, Wheeler withdrew. The contending forces reports vary greatly in describing the fighting, the casualties, and the amount of track and supplies captured and destroyed. This engagement was inconclusive, but since the Confederates withdrew, it may be termed a Union victory.

Result(s): Union victory (The Confederates withdrew.)


Lovejoy’s Station

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Clayton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): August 20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. H. Judson Kilpatrick [US]; Brig. Gen. William H. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Kilpatrick’s Cavalry Division [US]; Jackson’s Cavalry Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: While Confederate Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler was absent raiding Union supply lines from North Georgia to East Tennessee, Maj. Gen. William Sherman, unconcerned, sent Judson Kilpatrick to raid Rebel supply lines. Leaving on August 18, Kilpatrick hit the Atlanta & West Point Railroad that evening, tearing up a small area of tracks. Next, Kilpatrick headed for Lovejoy’s Station on the Macon & Western Railroad. In transit, on the 19th, Kilpatrick’s men hit the Jonesborough supply depot on the Macon & Western Railroad, burning great amounts of supplies. On the 20th, they reached Lovejoy’s Station and began their destruction. Rebel infantry (Cleburne’s Division) appeared and the raiders were forced to fight into the night, finally fleeing to prevent encirclement. Although Kilpatrick had destroyed supplies and track at Lovejoy’s Station, the railroad line was back in operation in two days.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Jonesborough

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Clayton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): August 31 September 1, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Six corps [US]; two corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,149 total (US 1,149; CS 2,000)

Description: Sherman had successfully cut Hood’s supply lines in the past by sending out detachments, but the Confederates quickly repaired the damage. In late August, Sherman determined that if he could cut Hood’s supply lines the Macon & Western and the Atlanta & West Point Railroads the Rebels would have to evacuate Atlanta. Sherman, therefore, decided to move six of his seven infantry corps against the supply lines. The army began pulling out of its positions on August 25 to hit the Macon & Western Railroad between Rough and Ready and Jonesborough. To counter the move, Hood sent Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee with two corps to halt and possibly rout the Union troops, not realizing Sherman’s army was there in force. On August 31, Hardee attacked two Union corps west of Jonesborough but was easily repulsed. Fearing an attack on Atlanta, Hood withdrew one corps from Hardee’s force that night. The next day, a Union corps broke through Hardee’s troops which retreated to Lovejoy’s Station, and on the night of September 1, Hood evacuated Atlanta. Sherman did cut Hood’s supply line but failed to destroy Hardee’s command.

Result(s): Union victory


Allatoona

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Bartow County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): October 5, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John M. Corse [US]; Maj. Gen. Samuel G. French [CS]

Forces Engaged: One brigade (1,944 men) [US]; one division (approx. 2,000 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,505 total (US 706; CS 799)

Description: After the fall of Atlanta, Hood moved northward to threaten the Western & Atlantic Railroad, Sherman’s supply line. He attacked a number of minor garrisons and damaged track during October 2-4. Sherman sent reinforcements John M. Corse’s brigade to Allatoona just before the Rebels attacked there. Maj. Gen. Samuel G. French’s Confederate division arrived near Allatoona at sunrise on the 5th. After demanding a surrender and receiving a negative reply, French attacked. The Union outer line survived a sustained two and a half hour attack, but then fell back and regrouped in an earthen Star fort of Allatoona Pass. French repeatedly attacked, but the fort held. The Rebels began to run out of ammunition, and reports of arriving Union reinforcements influenced them to move off and rejoin Hood’s force.

Result(s): Union victory


Griswoldville

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Jones County and Twiggs County

Campaign: Savannah Campaign (1864)

Date(s): November 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Charles C. Walcutt [US]; Brig. Gen. Pleasant J. Philips and Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps, Army of the Tennessee and two regiments of cavalry [US]; 1st Division Georgia Militia and Cavalry Corps, Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 712 total (US 62; CS 650)

Description: Brig. Gen. Charles Walcutt was ordered to make a demonstration, with the six infantry regiments and one battery that comprised his brigade, toward Macon to ascertain the disposition of enemy troops in that direction. He set out on the morning of November 22, and after a short march he ran into some of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry and drove them beyond Griswoldville. Having accomplished his mission, Walcutt retired to a position at Duncan’s Farm and fortified it with logs and rails to meet an expected Rebel attack force composed of three brigades of Georgia State Militia. The Georgia Militia had been ordered from Macon to Augusta, thinking the latter was Sherman’s next objective, and accidentally collided with Walcutt’s force. The Union force withstood three determined charges before receiving reinforcements of one regiment of infantry and two regiments of cavalry. The Rebels did not attack again and soon retired.

Result(s): Union victory


Buck Head Creek

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Jenkins County

Campaign: Savannah Campaign (1864)

Date(s): November 28, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. H. Judson Kilpatrick [US]; Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3rd Cavalry Division, Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; cavalry corps, Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 646 total (US 46; CS 600)

Description: As Sherman’s infantry marched southeast through Georgia, his cavalry, under Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick moved northeastward, on November 24, 1864, to destroy the railroad midway between Augusta and Millen, burn the trestle near Briar Creek and, if possible, release Union prisoners confined at Camp Lawton, near Millen, while feigning a drive towards Augusta. Confederate Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler was fooled and concentrated his cavalry forces around Augusta. When Kilpatrick did not show, Wheeler realized his mistake and rode off in an attempt to catch his Union counterpart. On the 26th, Wheeler caught up with two lagging Union regiments, attacked their camp, chased them to the larger force and prevented Kilpatrick from destroying the Briar Creek trestle. Kilpatrick instead destroyed a mile of track in the area and moved southwest to join up with Sherman. Kilpatrick also discovered that the Union prisoners at Camp Lawton had been taken to other unknown sites. He encamped near Buck Head Creek on the night of the 27th. Wheeler came along the next morning, almost captured Kilpatrick, and pursued him and his men to Buck Head Creek. As Kilpatrick’s main force crossed the creek, one regiment, supported by artillery, fought a rearguard action severely punishing Wheeler and then burned the bridge behind them. Wheeler soon crossed and followed, but a Union brigade behind barricades at Reynolds’s Plantation halted the Rebels drive, eventually forcing them to retire.

Result(s): Union victory


Waynesborough

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Burke County

Campaign: Savannah Campaign (1864)

Date(s): December 4, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. H. Judson Kilpatrick [US]; Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3rd Cavalry Division, Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Cavalry Command, Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 440 total (US 190; CS 250)

Description: As Sherman’s infantry marched southeast through Georgia, his cavalry under Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick rode northeastward. He set out on the morning of December 4 to attack Waynesborough and destroy Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry command. That morning Kilpatrick’s men advanced, driving the Rebel skirmishers in front of them. The Union force then came up against a defensive line of barricades which they eventually overran. As the Union advance continued, they met more barricades which required time to overcome. Finally, the Confederates fell back to a final line of barricades within the town. After furious fighting, the Union troops broke through and Wheeler’s force ran.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort McAllister II

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Bryan County

Campaign: Savannah Campaign (1864)

Date(s): December 13, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. William B. Hazen [US]; Maj. George A. Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Division, XV Corps, Army of the Tennessee [US]; Fort McAllister Garrison (120 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 205 total (US 134; CS 71)

Description: As Sherman’s troops approached Savannah they sorely required supplies. Sherman determined that if he could take Fort McAllister, supply ships could reach him. Thus, he ordered Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard, commander of his right wing, to take the fort. Howard chose Brig. Gen. William B. Hazen to accomplish the task. Hazen, in the afternoon of December 13, had his men in line for the attack. Upon giving the order to attack, his men rushed forward through the various obstacles prepared for them, entered the fort, and captured it. With his supply line open, Sherman could now prepare for the siege and capture of Savannah.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Georgia2019-07-25T20:48:01-04:00

Civil War Battles in Mississippi

All Civil War battles in Mississippi. They are in the order in which they occurred during the war.

Civil War Battles in Mississippi

Civil War Battles in Mississippi


Iuka

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Tishomingo County

Campaign: Iuka and Corinth Operations (1862)

Date(s): September 19, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Division and cavalry division, Army of the Mississippi (approx. 4,000-4,500) [US]; 1st Division, Army of the West (approx. 3,200) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,482 total (US 782; CS 700)

Description:Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s Army of the West main column marched into Iuka, Mississippi, on September 14. Price’s superior, Gen. Braxton Bragg, the commander of the Confederate Army of the Mississippi, who was leading an offensive deep into Kentucky, ordered him to prevent Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans’s Army of the Mississippi troops from moving into Middle Tennessee and reinforcing Brig. Gen. James Negley’s division of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell’s Army of the Ohio, which was garrisoning Nashville. Price had about 14,000 men, and he was informed that, if necessary, he could request assistance from Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, commanding the District of the Mississippi, headquartered at Holly Springs.

Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, commanding the Army of the Tennessee, feared that Price intended to go north to join Bragg against Buell. Grant devised a plan for his left wing commander, Maj. Gen. E.O.C. Ord, and his men to advance on Iuka from the west; Rosecrans’s forces were to march from the southwest, arrive at Iuka on the 18th, and make a coordinated attack the next day. Ord arrived on time and skirmishing ensued between his reconnaissance patrol and Confederate pickets, about six miles from Iuka, before nightfall.

Rosecrans informed Grant that he would not arrive at Iuka on the 18th but would begin his march at 4:30 am, the next morning. On the 19th, Ord sent Price a message demanding that he surrender, but Price refused. At the same time, Price received dispatches from Van Dorn suggesting that their two armies rendezvous, as soon as possible, at Rienzi for attacks on the Federal forces in the area. Price informed Van Dorn that the military situation had changed so he could not evacuate Iuka immediately. He did, however, issue orders for his men to prepare for a march the next day, to rendezvous with Van Dorn. Rosecrans’s army marched early on the 19th, but, instead of using two roads as directed, it followed the Jacinto (Bay Springs) Road.

After considering the amount of time that Rosecrans required to reach Iuka, Grant determined that he probably would not arrive on the 19th, so he ordered Ord to await the sound of fighting between Rosecrans and Price before engaging the Confederates. As Rosecrans advanced, his men fought actions with Confederate troops at points along the way. About 4:00 pm, just after ascending a hill, the Union column halted because the Confederates were well-placed below in a ravine, filled with timber and underbrush.

The Confederates launched attacks up the hill, capturing a six-gun Ohio battery, while the Federals counterattacked from the ridge. Fighting, which Price later stated he had never seen surpassed, continued until after dark; the Union troops camped for the night behind the ridge. Price had redeployed troops from Ord’s front to fight against Rosecrans’s people. Ord did nothing, later proclaiming that he never heard any fighting and, therefore, never engaged the enemy; Grant also remarked that he had heard no sounds of battle.

Following the fighting on the 19th, Price determined to reengage the enemy the next day, but his subordinates convinced him, instead, to march to join Van Dorn, as earlier planned. At the same time, Rosecrans redeployed his men for fighting the next day. Price’s army evacuated via the uncovered Fulton Road, protected its rear with a heavy rearguard and hooked up with Van Dorn five days later at Ripley. Although Rosecrans was supposed to traverse Fulton Road and cover it, he stated that he had not guarded the road because he feared dividing his force; Grant later approved this decision. Rosecrans’s army occupied Iuka and then mounted a pursuit; the Confederate rearguard and overgrown terrain prevented the Union pursuit from accomplishing much. The Federals should have destroyed or captured Price’s army, but instead the Rebels joined Van Dorn and assaulted Corinth in October.

Result(s): Union victory (In addition, it caused Grant to have concern about Rosecrans’s abilities and leadership.)


Corinth

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Alcorn County

Campaign: Iuka and Corinth Operations (1862)

Date(s): October 3-4, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans [US]; Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Mississippi [US]; Army of the West Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 7,197 total (US 2,359; CS 4,838)

Description: After the Battle of Iuka, Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s Confederate Army of the West marched from Baldwyn to Ripley where it joined Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn’s Army of West Tennessee. Van Dorn was senior officer and took command of the combined force numbering about 22,000 men. The Rebels marched to Pocahontas on October 1, and then moved southeast toward Corinth. They hoped to seize Corinth and then sweep into Middle Tennessee. Since the Siege of Corinth, in the spring, Union forces had erected various fortifications, an inner and intermediate line, to protect Corinth, an important transportation center. With the Confederate approach, the Federals, numbering about 23,000, occupied the outer line of fortifications and placed men in front of them.

Van Dorn arrived within three miles of Corinth at 10:00 am on October 3, and moved into some fieldworks that the Confederates had erected for the siege of Corinth. The fighting began, and the Confederates steadily pushed the Yankees rearward. A gap occurred between two Union brigades which the Confederates exploited around 1:00 pm. The Union troops moved back in a futile effort to close the gap. Price then attacked and drove the Federals back further to their inner line. By evening, Van Dorn was sure that he could finish the Federals off during the next day. This confidence–combined with the heat, fatigue, and water shortages–persuaded him to cancel any further operations that day. Rosecrans regrouped his men in the fortifications to be ready for the attack to come the next morning.

Van Dorn had planned to attack at daybreak, but Brig. Gen. Louis Hébert’s sickness postponed it till 9:00 am. As the Confederates moved forward, Union artillery swept the field causing heavy casualties, but the Rebels continued on. They stormed Battery Powell and closed on Battery Robinett, where desperate hand-to-hand fighting ensued. A few Rebels fought their way into Corinth, but the Federals quickly drove them out. The Federals continued on, recapturing Battery Powell, and forcing Van Dorn into a general retreat. Rosecrans postponed any pursuit until the next day. As a result, Van Dorn was defeated, but not destroyed or captured, at Hatchie Bridge, Tennessee, on October 5.

Result(s): Union victory


Chickasaw Bayou

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Chickasaw Bluffs, Walnut Hills

Location: Warren County

Campaign: Operations against Vicksburg (1862-1863)

Date(s): December 26-29, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Right Wing, XIII Army Corps [US]; Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,983 total (US 1,776; CS 207)

Description: On December 26, 1862, three Union divisions, under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, disembarked at Johnson’s Plantation on the Yazoo River to approach the Vicksburg defenses from the northeast while a fourth landed farther upstream on the 27th. On the 27th, the Federals pushed their lines forward through the swamps toward Walnut Hills, which were strongly defended. On the 28th, several futile attempts were made to get around these defenses. On December 29, Sherman ordered a frontal assault which was repulsed with heavy casualties. Sherman then withdrew. This Confederate victory frustrated Grant’s attempts to take Vicksburg by direct approach.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Grand Gulf

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Claiborne County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): April 29, 1863

Principal Commanders: Rear Adm. David D. Porter [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen [CS]

Forces Engaged: Mississippi Squadron and Companies A,B,D,F,G,H,K, 58th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment [US]; Bowen’s Division and attached troops [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 80; CS unknown)

Description: Rear Adm. David D. Porter led seven ironclads in an attack on the fortifications and batteries at Grand Gulf, with the intention of silencing the Confederate guns and then securing the area with troops of McClernand’s XIII Army Corps who were on the accompanying transports and barges. The attack by the seven ironclads began at 8:00 am and continued until about 1:30 pm. During the fight, the ironclads moved within 100 yards of the Rebel guns and silenced the lower batteries of Fort Wade; the Confederate upper batteries at Fort Cobun remained out of reach and continued to fire.

The Union ironclads (one of which, the Tuscumbia, had been put out of action) and the transports drew off. After dark, however, the ironclads engaged the Rebel guns again while the steamboats and barges ran the gauntlet. Grant marched his men overland across Coffee Point to below the Gulf. After the transports had passed Grand Gulf, they embarked the troops at Disharoon’s plantation and disembarked them on the Mississippi shore at Bruinsburg, below Grand Gulf. The men immediately began marching overland towards Port Gibson. The Confederates had won a hollow victory; the loss at Grand Gulf caused just a slight change in Grant’s offensive.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Snyder’s Bluff

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Snyder’s Mill

Location: Warren County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): April 29-May 1, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Brig. Gen. Louis Hébert [CS]

Forces Engaged: XV Army Corps, Department of the Tennessee [US]; Hébert’s Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: To insure that troops were not withdrawn to Grand Gulf to assist Confederates there, a combined Union army-navy force feigned an attack on Snyder’s Bluff, Mississippi. After noon, on April 29th, Lt. Cdr. K. Randolph Breese, with his eight gunboats and ten transports carrying Maj. Gen. Francis Blair’s division, inched up the Yazoo River to the mouth of Chickasaw Bayou where they spent the night. At 9:00 am, the next morning, the force, minus one gunboat, continued upriver to Drumgould’s Bluff and engaged the enemy batteries. During the fighting, Choctaw suffered more than fifty hits, but no casualties occurred.

Around 6:00 pm, the troops disembarked and marched along Blake’s Levee toward the guns. As they neared Drumgould’s Bluff, a battery opened on them, creating havoc and casualties. The Union advance halted and, after dark, the men reembarked on the transports. The next morning, transports disembarked other troops. The swampy terrain and enemy heavy artillery fire forced them to retire. The gunboats opened fire again, about 3:00 pm on the 1st, causing some damage. Later, the boats fire slackened and stopped altogether after dark. Sherman had received orders to land his troops at Milliken’s Bend, so the gunboats returned to their anchorages at the mouth of the Yazoo.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Port Gibson

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Thompson’s Hill

Location: Claiborne County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 1, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee (comprising two corps) [US]; Confederate forces in area (one reinforced division: four brigades) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,648 total (US 861; CS 787)

Description: Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant launched his march on Vicksburg in the Spring of 1863, starting his army south, from Milliken’s Bend, on the west side of the Mississippi River. He intended to cross the river at Grand Gulf, but the Union fleet was unable to silence the Confederate big guns there. Grant then marched farther south and crossed at Bruinsburg on April 30. Union forces came ashore, secured the landing area and, by late afternoon, began marching inland. Advancing on the Rodney Road towards Port Gibson, Grant’s force ran into Rebel outposts after midnight and skirmished with them for around three hours. After 3:00 am, the fighting stopped. Union forces advanced on the Rodney Road and a plantation road at dawn. At 5:30 am, the Confederates engaged the Union advance and the battle ensued. Federals forced the Rebels to fall back. The Confederates established new defensive positions at different times during the day but they could not stop the Union onslaught and left the field in the early evening. This defeat demonstrated that the Confederates were unable to defend the Mississippi River line and the Federals had secured their beachhead. The way to Vicksburg was open.

Result(s): Union victory


Raymond

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Hinds County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 12, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson [US]; Brig. Gen. John Gregg [CS]

Forces Engaged: XVII Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee [US]; Gregg’s Task Force (equivalent to a brigade) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,011 total (US 442; CS 569)

Description: Ordered by Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, Confederate commander at Vicksburg, Brig. Gen. John Gregg led his force from Port Hudson, Louisiana, to Jackson, Mississippi, and out to Raymond to intercept approaching Union troops. Before dawn on May 12, Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson had his XVII Army Corps on the march, and by 10:00 am they were about three miles from Raymond. Gregg decided to dispute the crossing of Fourteen Mile Creek and arrayed his men and artillery accordingly. As the Yankees approached, the Rebels opened fire, initially causing heavy casualties. Some Union troops broke, but Maj. Gen. John A. Logan rallied a force to hold the line. Confederate troops attacked the line but had to retire. More Yankees arrived and the Union force counterattacked. Heavy fighting ensued that continued for six hours, but the overwhelming Union force prevailed. Gregg’s men left the field. Although Gregg’s men lost the battle, they had held up a much superior Union force for a day.

Result(s): Union victory


Jackson

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Hinds County and Jackson County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 14, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Brig. Gen. John Gregg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee [US]; Jackson Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,136 total (US 286; CS 850)

Description: On May 9, 1863, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston received a dispatch from the Confederate Secretary of War directing him to proceed at once to Mississippi and take chief command of the forces in the field. As he arrived in Jackson on the 13th, from Middle Tennessee, he learned that two army corps from the Union Army of the Tennessee the XV, under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, and the XVII, under Maj. Gen. James Birdseye McPherson were advancing on Jackson, intending to cut the city and the railroads off from Vicksburg. Johnston consulted with the local commander, Brig. Gen. John Gregg, and learned that only about 6,000 troops were available to defend the town. Johnston ordered the evacuation of Jackson, but Gregg was to defend Jackson until the evacuation was completed.

By 10:00 am, both Union army corps were near Jackson and had engaged the enemy. Rain, Confederate resistance, and poor defenses prevented heavy fighting until around 11:00 am, when Union forces attacked in numbers and slowly but surely pushed the enemy back. In mid-afternoon, Johnston informed Gregg that the evacuation was complete and that he should disengage and follow. Soon after, the Yankees entered Jackson and had a celebration, hosted by Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant who had been travelling with Sherman’s corps, in the Bowman House. They then burned part of the town and cut the railroad connections with Vicksburg. Johnston’s evacuation of Jackson was a tragedy because he could, by late on the 14th, have had 11,000 troops at his disposal and by the morning of the 15th, another 4,000. The fall of the former Mississippi state capital was a blow to Confederate morale.

Result(s): Union victory


Champion Hill

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Bakers Creek

Location: Hinds County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 16, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee (three corps) [US]; Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 6,757 total (US 2,457; CS 4,300)

Description: Following the Union occupation of Jackson, Mississippi, both Confederate and Federal forces made plans for future operations. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston retreated, with most of his army, up the Canton Road, but he ordered Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, commanding about 23,000 men, to leave Edwards Station and attack the Federals at Clinton. Pemberton and his generals felt that Johnston’s plan was dangerous and decided instead to attack the Union supply trains moving from Grand Gulf to Raymond. On May 16, though, Pemberton received another order from Johnston repeating his former directions. Pemberton had already started after the supply trains and was on the Raymond-Edwards Road with his rear at the crossroads one-third mile south of the crest of Champion Hill.

Thus, when he ordered a countermarch, his rear, including his many supply wagons, became the advance of his force. On May 16, 1863, about 7:00 am, the Union forces engaged the Confederates and the Battle of Champion Hill began. Pemberton’s force drew up into a defensive line along a crest of a ridge overlooking Jackson Creek. Pemberton was unaware that one Union column was moving along the Jackson Road against his unprotected left flank. For protection, Pemberton posted Brig. Gen. Stephen D. Lee’s men atop Champion Hill where they could watch for the reported Union column moving to the crossroads. Lee spotted the Union troops and they soon saw him. If this force was not stopped, it would cut the Rebels off from their Vicksburg base. Pemberton received warning of the Union movement and sent troops to his left flank. Union forces at the Champion House moved into action and emplaced artillery to begin firing. When Grant arrived at Champion Hill, around 10:00 am, he ordered the attack to begin.

By 11:30 am, Union forces had reached the Confederate main line and about 1:00 pm, they took the crest while the Rebels retired in disorder. The Federals swept forward, capturing the crossroads and closing the Jackson Road escape route. One of Pemberton’s divisions (Bowen’s) then counterattacked, pushing the Federals back beyond the Champion Hill crest before their surge came to a halt. Grant then counterattacked, committing forces that had just arrived from Clinton by way of Bolton. Pemberton’s men could not stand up to this assault, so he ordered his men from the field to the one escape route still open: the Raymond Road crossing of Bakers Creek. Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman’s brigade formed the rearguard, and they held at all costs, including the loss of Tilghman. In the late afternoon, Union troops seized the Bakers Creek Bridge, and by midnight, they occupied Edwards. The Confederates were in full retreat towards Vicksburg. If the Union forces caught these Rebels, they would destroy them.

Result(s): Union victory


Big Black River Bridge

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Big Black

Location: Hinds County and Warren County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 17, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen [CS]

Forces Engaged: XIII Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee [US]; Bridgehead Defense Force (three brigades) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,273 total (US 273; CS 2,000)

Description: Reeling from their defeat at Champion Hill, the Confederates reached Big Black River Bridge, the night of May 16-17. Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton ordered Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen, with three brigades, to man the fortifications on the east bank of the river and impede any Union pursuit. Three divisions of Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand’s XIII Army Corps moved out from Edwards Station on the morning of the 17th. The corps encountered the Confederates behind breastworks and took cover as enemy artillery began firing. Union Brig. Gen. Michael K. Lawler formed his 2nd Brigade, Carr’s Division, which surged out of a meander scar, across the front of the Confederate forces, and into the enemy’s breastworks, held by Vaughn’s East Tennessee Brigade. Confused and panicked, the Rebels began to withdraw across the Big Black on two bridges: the railroad bridge and the steamboat dock moored athwart the river. As soon as they had crossed, the Confederates set fire to the bridges, preventing close Union pursuit. The fleeing Confederates who arrived in Vicksburg later that day were disorganized. The Union forces captured approximately 1,800 troops at Big Black, a loss that the Confederates could ill-afford. This battle sealed Vicksburg’s fate: the Confederate force wasbottled up at Vicksburg.

Result(s): Union victory


Vicksburg

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Warren County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 18-July 4, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee [US]; Army of Vicksburg [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 19,233 total (US 10,142; CS 9,091)

Description: In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations. This was the culmination of one of the most brilliant military campaigns of the war. With the loss of Pemberton’s army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half. Grant’s successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.

Result(s): Union victory


Meridian

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Lauderdale County

Campaign: Meridian and Yazoo River Expeditions (1864)

Date(s): February 14-20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of the Tennessee [US]; Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: From Vicksburg, Mississippi, Sherman launched a campaign to take the important railroad center at Meridian and, if the situation was favorable, push on to Selma, Alabama, and threaten Mobile. Sherman ordered Brig. Gen. William Sooy Smith to lead a cavalry force of 7,000 men from Memphis, Tennessee, on February 1, 1864, south through Okolona, along the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, and meet the rest of the Union force at Meridian. With the main force of 20,000 men, Sherman set out on the 3rd for Meridian, but made feints toward various other locations.

To counter the threat, Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered troops to the area from other localities. The Confederate commander in the area, Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk, consolidated a number of commands in and around Mortona, but lost his nerve and retreated rapidly eastward. Cavalry units commanded by Maj. Gen. Stephen D. Lee periodically skirmished with Sherman’s force. As Sherman approached Meridian, he met stiffer resistance from combined forces but steadily moved on. Polk finally realized that he could not stop Sherman and evacuated Meridian on the 14th, removing some railroad rolling stock to McDowell’s Bluff. Sherman’s troops entered Meridian the same day and began destroying railroad track, continuing their work until the 19th. Smith never arrived at Meridian. Sherman left Meridian on the 20th, headed west by way of Canton, looking for Smith and his force. He did not discover what happened to Smith until he arrived back at Vicksburg (see Okolona, #MS013). Sherman had destroyed some important Confederate transportation facilities but had to forget his aspirations for continuing into Alabama.

Result(s): Union victory


Okolona

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Chickasaw County

Campaign: Meridian and Yazoo River Expeditions (1864)

Date(s): February 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. William Sooy Smith [US]; Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Cavalry force (7,000) [US]; Forrest’s Cavalry Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 150 total (US 100; CS 50)

Description: From Vicksburg, Mississippi, Sherman launched a campaign to take the important railroad center at Meridian, Mississippi, and if the situation were favorable, to push on to Selma, Alabama, and threaten Mobile. Sherman ordered Brig. Gen. William Sooy Smith to lead a cavalry force of 7,000 men from Memphis, Tennessee, on February 1, 1864, south through Okolona, along the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, and to meet the rest of the Union force at Meridian, on February 10. With the main force of approximately 20,000 men, Sherman set out on the 3rd for Meridian, but made feints on various other locations.

Against orders, Smith delayed ten days, while waiting for reinforcements, and did not start out until February 11. Destroying crops and railroad track along the way, Smith’s force met almost no opposition, and, before long, 1,000 former slaves were traveling with them. Smith was supposed to rendezvous with Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman at Meridian on the 10th, but he never arrived there. Sherman left Meridian on the 20th, due in part to apprehension over Smith’s whereabouts. Smith neared West Point, 90 miles north of Meridian, on the 20th, and he fought with Confederate cavalry units at Prairie Station and Aberdeen. Smith knowing that Nathan Bedford Forrest commanded the troops he was fighting, concerned about the fate of the former slaves with him, and not knowing how many of the enemy he faced decided to concentrate at Prairie Station, and, on the morning of the 21st, he set out for West Point. Shortly after dawn on the 21st, Col. Jeffrey Forrest’s Confederate cavalry brigade engaged Smith.

Withdrawing at times, Forrest drew Smith into a swamp west of the Tombigbee River. Other Rebel troops arrived and the fighting intensified. Smith was sure that this was a trap set for him, and, discerning that he was greatly outnumbered, he ordered a retreat, leaving a rearguard. The rearguard held off the Confederates for about two hours before withdrawing in good order. About the same time, Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest arrived and ordered a pursuit. Skirmishing occurred the rest of the day. At sunup on the 22nd, the Rebels attacked Smith just south of Okolona on the prairie. More Confederate troops arrived, causing breaks in the Union battle line, precipitating a retreat. For most of the rest of the day, they engaged in a running battle for a distance of eleven miles, with both sides attacking and counterattacking.

Col. Forrest was killed during one Rebel charge. The Yankees finally broke off the fighting and headed for Pontotoc. Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, the commander on the field, realized that his men were nearly out of ammunition and did not order a pursuit. Mississippi militia harassed Smith to the state line. Smith arrived in Collierville, Tennessee, near Memphis, on the 26th. Although Smith had caused much destruction during his expedition, Okolona forced him to retire before he could do more. Smith’s actions against Sherman’s orders jeopardized the Meridian Expedition.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Brice’s Cross Roads

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Tishomingo Creek

Location: Prentiss County and Union County

Campaign: Forrest’s Defense of Mississippi (1864)

Date(s): June 10, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis [US]; Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Three-brigade division of infantry and a division of cavalry (about 8,500 ) [US]; cavalry corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,105 total (US 2,610; CS 495)

Description: At the beginning of June 1864, Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest set out with his cavalry corps of about 2,000 men to enter Middle Tennessee and destroy the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, which was carrying men and supplies to Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman in Georgia. On June 10, 1864, Forrest’s smaller Confederate force defeated a much larger Union column under Brig. Gen. Samuel Sturgis at Brice’s Cross Roads. This brilliant tactical victory against long odds cemented Forrest’s reputation as one of the foremost mounted infantry leaders of the war.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Tupelo

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Harrisburg

Location: Lee County

Campaign: Forrest’s Defense of Mississippi (1864)

Date(s): July 14-15, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith [US]; Lt. Gen. Stephen D. Lee and Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: 1st and 3rd Infantry Divisions and Cavalry Division, XVI Army Corps, and 1st Brigade, U.S. Colored Troops (14,000) [US]; Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,948 total (US 648; CS 1,300)

Description: Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith, commanding a combined force of more than 14,000 men, left LaGrange, Tennessee, on July 5, 1864, and advanced south. Smith’s mission was to insure that Maj. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest and his cavalry did not raid Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s railroad lifeline in Middle Tennessee and, thereby, prevent supplies from reaching him in his campaign against Atlanta. Laying waste to the countryside as he advanced, Smith reached Pontotoc, Mississippi, on July 11. Forrest was in nearby Okolona with about 6,000 men, but his commander, Lt. Gen. Stephen D. Lee, told him he could not attack until he was reinforced. Two days later, Smith, fearing an ambush, moved east toward Tupelo. On the previous day, Lee arrived near Pontotoc with 2,000 additional men and, under his command, the entire Confederate force engaged Smith. Within two miles of the Federals, on the night of the 13th, Lee ordered an attack for the next morning. Lee attacked at 7:30 am the next morning in a number of uncoordinated assaults which the Yankees beat back, causing heavy casualties. Lee halted the fighting after a few hours. Short on rations, Smith did not pursue but started back to Memphis on the 15th. Criticized for not destroying Forrest’s command, Smith had caused much damage and had fulfilled his mission of insuring Sherman’s supply lines.

Result(s): Union victory


Corinth

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Hardin County and McNairy County, Tennessee; Alcorn County and Tishomingo County, Mississippi

Campaign: Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers (1862)

Date(s): April 29-June 10, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck [US]; Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of the Mississippi [US]; Department No. 2 [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Following the Union victory at Shiloh, the Union armies under Maj. Gen. Henry Halleck advanced on the vital rail center of Corinth. By May 25, 1862, after moving 5 miles in 3 weeks, Halleck was in position to lay siege to the town. The preliminary bombardment began, and Union forces maneuvered for position. On the evening of May 29-30, Confederate commander Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard evacuated Corinth, withdrawing to Tupelo. The Federals had consolidated their position in northern Mississippi.

Result(s): Union victory, although the raid ultimately failed.

Civil War Battles in Mississippi2019-07-25T20:41:14-04:00

Civil War Battles in Florida

The state of Florida did not see much fighting during the war.

The largest battle fought was the battle of Olustee fought in 1864.

This was a Confederate victory, however the southerners did not take advantage of this victory and allowed the retreating Union forces to escape.

I think one of the most interesting events that occured in Florida was at Tampa. One Union gunboat arrived in the bay and demanded the surrender of the entire town.

After firing a few shots at Tampa the gunboat withdrew leaving the town in Confederate hands.

Below is a list of all Civil War battles in Florida.

They are in the order in which they occurred during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in Florida

Civil War Battles in Florida


Santa Rosa Island

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: None

Location: Escambia County

Campaign: Operations of Gulf Blockading Squadron (1861)

Date(s): October 9, 1861

Principal Commanders: Col. Harvey Brown [US]; Confederate Brig. Gen. Richard H. Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Santa Rosa Island Garrison (approx. 600 men) [US]; infantry and artillery detachments (approx. 1,000 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 154 total (US 67; CS 87)

Description: After midnight on October 9, Brig. Gen. Richard Anderson crossed from the mainland to Santa Rosa Island with 1,000 men in two small steamers to surprise Union camps and capture Fort Pickens. He landed on the north beach about four miles east of Fort Pickens and divided his command into three columns. After proceeding about three miles, the Confederates surprised the 6th Regiment, New York Volunteers, in its camp and routed the regiment. Col. Harvey Brown sallied against the Confederates, who reembarked and returned to the mainland.

Result(s): Union victory


Tampa

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: Yankee Outrage at Tampa

Location: City of Tampa

Campaign: Operations against Tampa (June-July 1862)

Date(s): June 30-July 1, 1862

Principal Commanders: Capt. A.J. Drake [US]; Capt. J.W. Pearson [CS]

Forces Engaged: One gunboat [US]; Osceola Rangers, company [CS]

Estimated Casualties: None

Description: On June 30, a Union gunboat came into Tampa Bay, turned her broadside on the town, and opened her ports. The gunboat then dispatched a launch carrying 20 men and a lieutenant under a flag of truce demanding the surrender of Tampa. The Confederates refused, and the gunboat opened fire. The officer then informed the Confederates that shelling would commence at 6:00 pm after allowing time to evacuate non-combatants from the city. Firing continued sporadically into the afternoon of July 1, when the Federal gunboat withdrew.

Result(s): Confederate victory (Inconclusive, but Union gunboat withdrew.)


St. John’s Bluff

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: None

Location: Duval County

Campaign: Expedition to St. John’s Bluff (1862)

Date(s): October 1-3, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John M. Brannan [US]; Lt. Col. Charles F. Hopkins [CS]

Forces Engaged: Expeditionary Force: 2 infantry regiments, a light artillery battery and detachment of the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry (total force 1,573) [US]; a small artillery and cavalry force [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Brig. Gen. John Finegan established a battery on St. John’s Bluff near Jacksonville to stop the movement of Federal ships up the St. Johns River. Brig. Gen. John M. Brannan embarked with about 1,500 infantry aboard the transports Boston, Ben DeFord, Cosmopolitan, and Neptune at Hilton Head, South Carolina, on September 30. The flotilla arrived at the mouth of the St. John’s River on October 1, where Cdr. Charles Steedman’s gunboats, Paul Jones, Cimarron, Uncas, Patroon, Hale, and Water Witch joined them. By midday, the gunboats approached the bluff, while Brannan began landing troops at Mayport Mills. Another infantry force landed at Mount Pleasant Creek, about five miles in the rear of the Confederate battery, and began marching overland on the 2nd. Outmaneuvered, Lt. Col. Charles F. Hopkins abandoned the position after dark. When the gunboats approached the bluff the next day, its guns were silent.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Brooke

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: None

Location: Tampa

Campaign: Expedition to Hillsborough River (1863)

Date(s): October 16-18, 1863

Principal Commanders: Lt. Comdr. A.A. Semmes [US];Capt. John Westcott [CS]

Forces Engaged: Tahoma, Adela, and landing force [US]; Company A, 2nd Battalion, Florida Volunteers [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Two Union ships bombarded Fort Brooke on October 16 as a diversion, while a landing party under Acting Master T.R. Harris disembarked at Ballast Point and marched 14 miles to the Hillsborough River to capture several steamers. Harris and his men surprised and captured the blockade running steamer Scottish Chief and sloop Kate Dale. The Rebels destroyed the steamer A.B. Noyes to preclude her capture. On its way back to the ship, Harris’s force was surprised by a detachment of the garrison, causing casualties.

Result(s): Union victory


Olustee

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: Ocean Pond

Location: Baker County

Campaign: Florida Expedition (1864)

Date(s): February 20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Truman Seymour [US]; Brig. Gen. Joseph Finegan [CS]

Forces Engaged: Division [US]; District of East Florida [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,806 total (US 1,860; CS 946)

Description: In February 1864, the commander of the Department of the South, Maj. Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore, launched an expedition into Florida to secure Union enclaves, sever Rebel supply routes, and recruit black soldiers. Brig. Gen. Truman Seymour moved deep into the state, occupying, destroying, and liberating, meeting little resistance on February 20, he approached Brig. Gen. Joseph Finegan’s 5,000 Confederates entrenched near Olustee. One infantry brigade pushed out to meet Seymour’s advance units. The Union forces attacked but were repulsed. The battle raged, and as Finegan committed the last of his reserves, the Union line broke and began to retreat. Finegan did not exploit the retreat, allowing most of the fleeing Union forces to reach Jacksonville.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Natural Bridge

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: None

Location: Leon County

Campaign: Operations near St. Marks, Florida (1865)

Date(s): March 6, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Newton [US]; Maj. Gen. Sam Jones [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd U.S. Colored Infantry and 99th U.S. Colored Infantry [US]; Kilcrease Artillery; Dunham’s Battery; Abell’s Battery; 5th Florida Cavalry; 1st Florida Militia; Barwick’s Company Reserves; Hodges Company Reserves; Company A, Milton Light Artillery; Companies A, B, and F, Reserves and reinforcements from Georgia amounting to approx. 1,000 men [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 174 (US 148; CS 26)

Description: Maj. Gen. John Newton had undertaken a joint force expedition to engage and destroy Confederate troops that had attacked at Cedar Keys and Fort Myers and were allegedly encamped somewhere around St. Marks. The Navy had trouble getting its ships up the St. Marks River. The Army force, however, had advanced and, after finding one bridge destroyed, started before dawn on March 6 to attempt to cross the river at Natural Bridge. The troops initially pushed Rebel forces back but not away from the bridge. Confederate forces, protected by breastworks, guarded all of the approaches and the bridge itself. The action at Natural Bridge lasted most of the day, but, unable to take the bridge, the Union troops retreated to the protection of the fleet.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Civil War Battles in Florida2019-07-25T20:48:46-04:00

Civil War Battles in Ohio

All Civil War battles in Ohio. They are listed in the order that they occurred.

Civil War Battles in Ohio

Civil War Battles in Ohio


Buffington Island

Other Names: St. Georges Creek

Location: Meigs County

Campaign: Morgan’s Raid in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio (July 1863)

Date(s): July 19, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Edward H. Hobson [US]; Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades: 4,700 total (US 3,000; CS 1,700)

Estimated Casualties: 925 total (US 25; CS 900)

Description: On July 13, Morgan’s raiders crossed into Ohio at Harrison, pursued by several columns of Union cavalry under overall direction of Brig. Gen. Edward H. Hobson. On July 19, Kautz’s and Judah’s brigades attacked Morgan near Buffington Island. During the night, Morgan and about 400 men escaped encirclement by following a narrow woods path. The rest of his force surrendered.

Result(s): Union victory


Salineville

Other Names: New Lisbon, New Lisbon Road, Wellsville

Location: Columbiana County

Campaign: Morgan’s Raid in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio (July 1863)

Date(s): July 26, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. James Shackelford [US]; Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3,000 total (US 2,600; CS 400)

Estimated Casualties: 364 total (US none; CS 364)

Description: After escaping encirclement at Buffington’s Island with about 400 of his men, Morgan continued east and north, attempting to find a safe crossing over the Ohio River. With several columns of Union cavalry in hot pursuit, Morgan passed through Salineville, riding down the railroad toward Smith’s Ford. Turning onto the New Lisbon Road, Morgan’s raiders were finally cut off. Morgan surrendered. During this raid, Morgan and his men captured and paroled about 6,000 Union soldiers and militia, destroyed 34 bridges, disrupted the railroads at more than 60 places, and diverted tens of thousands of troops from other duties.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Ohio2019-07-25T20:37:15-04:00