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Civil War Battles in Alabama

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Alabama was fortunate that it did not suffer through as many battles during the war as other states did. In fact no battle was fought in Alabama until 1863 almost exactly two years after the beginning of the conflict. One of the most notable battles that took place in Alabama was the battle of Mobile Bay fought in 1864.

This was a Union attack combining naval and land forces against Mobile Bay leading to a Union victory. Confederate forces were never able to win any battles in Alabama. The following is a list of all Civil War battles in Alabama. They are in the order in which they occurred during the Civil War.


Day’s Gap

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: Sand Mountain

Location: Cullman County, Alabama

Campaign: Streight’s Raid in Alabama and Georgia (1863)

Date(s): April 30, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. Abel Streight [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Men from 51st Indiana Infantry, 73rd Indiana Infantry, 3rd Ohio Infantry, 80th Illinois Infantry, and 1st Middle Tennessee Cavalry [US]; three regiments [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 88 total (US 23; CS 65)

Description: Union Col. Abel D. Streight led a provisional brigade on a raid to cut the Western & Atlantic Railroad that supplied Gen. Braxton Bragg’s Confederate army in Middle Tennessee. From Nashville, Tennessee, Streight’s command traveled to Eastport, Mississippi, and then proceeded east to Tuscumbia, Alabama, in conjunction with another Union force commanded by Brig. Gen. Grenville Dodge. On April 26, 1863, Streight’s men left Tuscumbia and marched southeast, their initial movements screened by Dodge’s troops.

On April 30, Confederate Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s brigade caught up with Streight’s expedition and attacked its rearguard at Day’s Gap on Sand Mountain. The Federals repulsed this attack and continued their march to avoid further delay and envelopment. Thus began a running series of skirmishes and engagements at Crooked Creek (April 30), Hog Mountain (April 30), Blountsville (May 1), Black Creek/Gadsden (May 2), and Blount’s Plantation (May 2). Forrest finally surrounded the exhausted Union soldiers near Rome, Georgia, where he forced their surrender on May 3.

Result(s): Union victory, although the raid ultimately failed.


Athens

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Limestone County

Campaign: Operations in North Alabama (1864)

Date(s): January 26, 1864

Principal Commanders: Capt. Emil Adams [US]; Lt. Col. Moses W. Hannon [CS]

Forces Engaged: 9th Illinois Mounted Infantry [US]; 1st Alabama Cavalry [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 50 total (US 20; CS 30)

Description: Confederate cavalry, numbering about 600 men, attacked Athens, held by about 100 Union troops, around 4:00 am on the morning of January 26, 1864. After a two-hour battle, the Confederates retreated. Union forces, although greatly outnumbered and without fortifications, repulsed the attackers.

Result(s): Union victory (The Confederate force failed in its attempt to take Athens.)


Mobile Bay

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: Passing of Forts Morgan and Gaines

Location: Mobile County and Baldwin County

Campaign: Operations in Mobile Bay (1864)

Date(s): August 2-23, 1864

Principal Commanders: Adm. David G. Farragut and Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger [US]; Adm. Franklin Buchanan and Brig. Gen. Richard L. Page [CS]

Forces Engaged: Farragut’s Fleet (14 wooden ships and 4 monitors) and U.S. army forces near Mobile [US]; Buchanan’s Flotilla (3 gunboats and an ironclad), Fort Morgan Garrison, Fort Gaines Garrison, and Fort Powell Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,822 (US 322; CS 1,500)

Description: A combined Union force initiated operations to close Mobile Bay to blockade running. Some Union forces landed on Dauphin Island and laid siege to Fort Gaines. On August 5, Farragut’s Union fleet of eighteen ships entered Mobile Bay and received a devastating fire from Forts Gaines and Morgan and other points. After passing the forts, Farragut forced the Confederate naval forces, under Adm. Franklin Buchanan, to surrender, which effectively closed Mobile Bay. By August 23, Fort Morgan, the last big holdout, fell, shutting down the port. The city, however, remained uncaptured.

Results(s): Union victory


Decatur

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Morgan County and Limestone County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): October 26-29, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Robert S. Granger [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Garrison and other troops sent there (approx. 5,000 men) [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 605 total (US 155; CS 450)

Description: As Gen. John B. Hood began the Franklin-Nashville Campaign during the fall of 1864, his Army of Tennessee demonstrated against Decatur, Alabama, October 26-29, in an attempt to cross the Tennessee River. Union forces, under the command of Brig. Gen. Robert S. Granger for most of the battle, numbered only about 5,000 men, but successfully prevented the much larger Confederate force from crossing the river.

Result(s): Union victory (Confederate forces could not cross the river.)


Spanish Fort

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Baldwin County

Campaign: Mobile Campaign (1865)

Date(s): March 27-April 8, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby [US]; Brig. Gen. Randall L. Gibson [CS]

Forces Engaged: XVI and XIII Corps [US]; Spanish Fort Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,401 (US 657; CS 744)

Description: Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby’s XIII and XVI corps moved along the eastern shore of Mobile Bay forcing the Confederates back into their defenses. Union forces then concentrated on Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. On March 27, 1865, Canby’s forces rendezvoused at Danley’s Ferry and immediately undertook a siege of Spanish Fort. The Union had enveloped the fort by April 1, and on April 8 captured it. Most of the Confederate forces, under the command of Brig. Gen. Randall L. Gibson, escaped and fled to Mobile, but Spanish Fort was no longer a threat.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Blakely

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Baldwin County

Campaign: Mobile Campaign (1865)

Date(s): April 2-9, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby [US]; Brig. Gen. St. John R. Liddell [CS]

Forces Engaged: XIII and XVI Corps [US]; Fort Blakely Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total 4,475. April 9 only 3,529 (US 629; CS 2,900)

Description: E.R.S. Canby’s forces, the XVI and XIII corps, moved along the eastern shore of Mobile Bay, forcing the Confederates back into their defenses. Union forces then concentrated on Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. By April 1, Union forces had enveloped Spanish Fort, thereby releasing more troops to focus on Fort Blakely. Brig. Gen. St. John R. Liddell, with about 4,000 men, held out against the much larger Union force until Spanish Fort fell on April 8, allowing Canby to concentrate 16,000 men for the attack on April 9. Sheer numbers breached the Confederate earthworks compelling the Confederates to capitulate. The siege and capture of Fort Blakely was basically the last combined-force battle of the war. African-American forces played a major role in the successful Union assault.

Result(s): Union victory (Fort Blakely surrendered.)


Selma

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Dallas County

Campaign: Wilson’s Raid in Alabama and Georgia (1865)

Date(s): April 2, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson [US]; Lt. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two cavalry divisions [US]; troops in city (approx. 5,000 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,019 total (US 319; CS 2,700)

Description: Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson, commanding three divisions of Union cavalry, about 13,500 men, led his men south from Gravelly Springs, Alabama, on March 22, 1865. Opposed by Confederate Lt. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest, Wilson skillfully continued his march and eventually defeated him in a running battle at Ebenezer Church, on April 1. Continuing towards Selma, Wilson split his command into three columns. Although Selma was well-defended, the Union columns broke through the defenses at separate points forcing the Confederates to surrender the city, although many of the officers and men, including Forrest and Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor, escaped. Selma demonstrated that even Forrest, whom some had considered invincible, could not stop the unrelenting Union movements deep into the Southern Heartland.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Alabama2019-07-25T20:50:17-04:00

Civil War Battles in Maryland

All Civil War battles in Maryland. They are in the order that they occurred during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in Maryland

Civil War Battles in Maryland


Hancock

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Romney Campaign

Location: Washington County, Maryland; Morgan County, West Virginia

Campaign: Jackson’s Operations against the B&O Railroad (January 1862)

Date(s): January 5-6, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. F.W. Lander [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 25 total

Description: On January 1, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson marched north in bitter cold from Winchester to Bath with the objective of disrupting traffic on the B&O Railroad and C&O Canal. On January 5, after skirmishing with the retiring Federals, Jackson’s force reached the Potomac River opposite the garrisoned town of Hancock, Maryland. His artillery fired on the town from Orrick’s Hill but did little damage. Union garrison commander Brig. Gen. F.W. Lander refused Jackson’s demands for surrender. Jackson continued the bombardment for two days while unsuccessfully searching for a safe river crossing. The Confederates withdrew and marched on Romney, in western Virginia, on January 7.

Result(s): Inconclusive


South Mountain

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Crampton’s, Turner’s, and Fox’s Gaps

Location: Frederick County and Washington County

Campaign: Maryland Campaign (September 1862)

Date(s): September 14, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 4,500 total

Description: After invading Maryland in September 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee divided his army to march on and invest Harpers Ferry. The Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan pursued the Confederates to Frederick, Maryland, then advanced on South Mountain. On September 14, pitched battles were fought for possession of the South Mountain passes: Crampton’s, Turner’s, and Fox’s Gaps. By dusk the Confederate defenders were driven back, suffering severe casualties, and McClellan was in position to destroy Lee’s army before it could reconcentrate. McClellan’s limited activity on September 15 after his victory at South Mountain, however, condemned the garrison at Harpers Ferry to capture and gave Lee time to unite his scattered divisions at Sharpsburg. Union general Jesse Reno and Confederate general Samuel Garland, Jr., were killed at South Mountain.

Result(s): Union victory


Antietam

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Sharpsburg

Location: Washington County

Campaign: Maryland Campaign (September 1862)

Date(s): September 16-18, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 23,100 total

Description: On September 16, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan confronted Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. At dawn September 17, Hooker’s corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee’s left flank that began the single bloodiest day in American military history. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller’s cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. Late in the day, Burnside’s corps finally got into action, crossing the stone bridge over Antietam Creek and rolling up the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill’s division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and saving the day. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, while removing his wounded south of the river. McClellan did not renew the assaults. After dark, Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Union strategic victory.)


Williamsport

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Hagerstown, Falling Waters

Location: Washington County

Campaign: Gettysburg Campaign (June-August 1863)

Date(s): July 6-16, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,730 total

Description: During the night of July 4-5, Lee’s battered army began its retreat from Gettysburg, moving southwest on the Fairfield Road toward Hagerstown and Williamsport, screened by Stuart’s cavalry. The Union infantry followed cautiously the next day, converging on Middletown, Maryland. On July 7, Imboden (CS) stopped Buford’s Union cavalry from occupying Williamsport and destroying Confederate trains. Kilpatrick’s cavalry division drove two Confederate cavalry brigades through Hagerstown before being forced to retire by the arrival of the rest of Stuart’s command. Lee’s infantry reached the rain-swollen Potomac River but could not cross, the pontoon bridge having been destroyed by a cavalry raid. On July 11, Lee entrenched a line, protecting the river crossings at Williamsport and waited for Meade’s army to advance. July 12, Meade reached the vicinity and probed the Confederate line. July 13, skirmishing was heavy along the lines as Meade positioned his forces for an attack. In the meantime, the river fell enough to allow the construction of a new bridge, and Lee’s army began crossing the river after dark on the 13th. On the morning of the 14th, Kilpatrick’s and Buford’s cavalry divisions attacked the rearguard division of Henry Heth still on the north bank, taking more than 500 prisoners. Confederate Brig. Gen. James Pettigrew was mortally wounded in the fight. On July 16, David McM. Gregg’s cavalry approached Shepherdstown where Fitzhugh Lee’s and J.R. Chambliss’s brigades, supported by M.J. Ferguson’s, held the Potomac River fords against the Union infantry. Fitzhugh Lee and Chambliss attacked Gregg, who held out against several attacks and sorties, fighting sporadically until nightfall when he withdrew.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Boonsboro

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: None

Location: Washington County

Campaign: Gettysburg Campaign (June-August 1863)

Date(s): July 8, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton [US]; Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 100 total

Description: On July 8, the Confederate cavalry, holding the South Mountain passes, fought a rearguard action against elements of the Union 1st and 3rd Cavalry Divisions and infantry. This action was one of a series of cavalry combats fought around Boonsboro, Hagerstown, and Williamsport.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Monocacy

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Battle that Saved Washington

Location: Frederick County

Campaign: Early’s Raid and Operations against the B&O Railroad (June-August 1864)

Date(s): July 9, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 2,359 total

Description: After marching north through the Shenandoah Valley from Lynchburg, the Confederate army of Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early side-stepped the Federal garrison at Harpers Ferry and crossed the Potomac River at Shepherdstown into Maryland on July 5-6. On July 9, 1864, a makeshift Union force under Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace attempted to arrest Early’s invading Confederate divisions along the Monocacy River, just east of Frederick. Wallace, joined by Ricketts’s Division of the VI Corps that had been rushed from the Petersburg lines, was outflanked by Gordon’s Division and defeated after putting up a stiff resistance. Hearing of Early’s incursion into Maryland, Grant embarked the rest of the VI Corps on transports at City Point, sending it with all dispatch to Washington. Wallace’s defeat at Monocacy bought time for these veteran troops to arrive to bolster the defenses of Washington. Early’s advance reached the outskirts of Washington on the afternoon of July 11, and the remaining divisions of the VI Corps began disembarking that evening. Monocacy was called the Battle that Saved Washington.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Folck’s Mill

Civil War battles in Maryland

Other Names: Cumberland

Location: Allegany County

Campaign: Early’s Raid and Operations against the B&O Railroad (June-August 1864)

Date(s): August 1, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Benjamin F. Kelly [US]; Brig. Gen. John McCausland [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 38 total

Description: After burning Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, on July 30, Johnson’s and McCausland’s cavalry brigades rode towards Cumberland, Maryland, to disrupt the B&O Railroad. Brig. Gen. Benjamin Kelly organized a small force of soldiers and citizens to meet the Confederate advance. On August 1, Kelly ambushed Rebel cavalrymen near Cumberland at Folck’s Mill, and skirmishing continued for several hours. Eventually the Confederates withdrew.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Civil War Battles in Maryland2019-07-25T20:42:42-04:00

Civil War Battles in Virginia 1861

Civil War Battles in Virginia 1861

They are listed in the order in which they occurred.

Since Virginia saw the most battles during the Civil War I have broken them down by each year.

Civil War Battles in Virginia in 1861

Civil War Battles in Virginia in 1861


Sewell’s Point

Civil War battles in Virginia 1861

Other Names: None

Location: Norfolk City

Campaign: Blockade of the Chesapeake Bay (May-June 1861)

Date(s): May 18-19, 1861

Principal Commanders: Lt. D.L. Braine U.S.N. [US]; Brig. Gen. Walter Gwynn and Capt. Peyton Colquitt [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two gunboats [US]; battery garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 10 total

Description: Two Union gunboats, including USS Monticello, dueled with Confederate batteries on Sewell’s Point in an attempt to enforce the blockade of Hampton Roads. The two sides did each other little harm.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Aquia Creek

Civil War battles in Virginia 1861

Other Names: None

Location: Stafford County

Campaign: Blockade of the Chesapeake Bay (May-June 1861)

Date(s): May 29-June 1, 1861

Principal Commanders: Cdr. James H. Ward [US]; Col. Daniel Ruggles [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3 gunboats [US]; battery garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 10 total

Description: Three Union naval vessels bombarded Confederate batteries near the mouth of Aquia Creek that were built to protect the northern terminus of the railroad to Richmond. Confederates feared a landing of troops, but this did not materialize. Results of the bombardment were inconclusive, although the batteries were later withdrawn.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Big Bethel

Civil War battles in Virginia 1861

Other Names: Bethel Church, Great Bethel

Location: York County and Hampton

Campaign: Blockade of the Chesapeake Bay (May-June 1861)

Date(s): June 10, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Ebenezer Pierce [US]; Col. John B. Magruder and Col. D.H. Hill [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4,700 total (US 3,500; CS 1,200)

Estimated Casualties: 87 total (US 79; CS 8)

Description: This was the first land battle in Virginia. Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler sent converging columns from Hampton and Newport News against advanced Confederate outposts at Little and Big Bethel. Confederates abandoned Little Bethel and fell back to their entrenchments behind Brick Kiln Creek, near Big Bethel Church. The Federals, under immediate command of Brig. Gen. Ebenezer Pierce, pursued, attacked frontally along the road, and were repulsed. Crossing downstream, the 5th New York Zouaves attempted to turn the Confederate left flank, but were repulsed. Unit commander Col. T. Wynthrop was killed. The Union forces were disorganized and retired, returning to Hampton and Newport News. The Confederates suffered 1 killed, 7 wounded.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Blackburn’s Ford

Civil War battles in Virginia 1861

Other Names: Bull Run

Location: Prince William County and Fairfax County

Campaign: Manassas Campaign (July 1861)

Date(s): July 18, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell [US]; Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 151 total (US 83; CS 68)

Description: On 16 July, 1862, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, 35,000 strong, marched out of the Washington defenses to give battle to the Confederate army, which was concentrated around the vital railroad junction at Manassas. The Confederate army, about 22,000 men, under the command of Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, guarded the fords of Bull Run. On July 18, McDowell reached Centreville and pushed southwest, attempting to cross at Blackburn’s Ford. He was repulsed. This action was a reconnaissance-in-force prior to the main event at Manassas/Bull Run. Because of this action, Union commander McDowell decided on the flanking maneuver he employed at First Manassas.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Manassas, First

Civil War battles in Virginia 1861

Other Names: First Bull Run

Location: Fairfax County and Prince William County

Campaign: Manassas Campaign (July 1861)

Date(s): July 21, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell [US]; Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: 60,680 total (US 28,450; CS 32,230)

Estimated Casualties: 4,700 total (US 2,950; CS 1,750)

Description: This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements (one brigade arriving by rail from the Shenandoah Valley) extended and broke the Union right flank.

The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Although victorious, Confederate forces were too disorganized to pursue. Confederate Gen. Bee and Col. Bartow were killed. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nom de guerre Stonewall. By July 22, the shattered Union army reached the safety of Washington. This battle convinced the Lincoln administration that the war would be a long and costly affair. McDowell was relieved of command of the Union army and replaced by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who set about reorganizing and training the troops.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Ball’s Bluff

Civil War battles in Virginia 1861

Other Names: Harrison’s Landing, Leesburg

Location: Loudoun County

Campaign: McClellan’s Operations in Northern Virginia (October-December 1861)

Date(s): October 21, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone and Col. Edward Baker [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan G. Evans [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3,600 total (US 2,000; CS 1,600)

Estimated Casualties: 1,070 total (US 921; CS 149)

Description: Confederate Brig. Gen. Nathan Shanks Evans stopped a badly coordinated attempt by Union forces under Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone to cross the Potomac at Harrison’s Island and capture Leesburg. A timely Confederate counterattack drove the Federals over the bluff and into the river. More than 700 Federals were captured. Col. Edward D. Baker (a U.S. Senator) was killed. This Union rout had severe political ramifications in Washington and led to the establishment of the Congressional Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Dranesville

Civil War battles in Virginia 1861

Other Names: None

Location: Fairfax County

Campaign: McClellan’s Operations in Northern Virginia (October-December 1861)

Date(s): December 20, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. E.O.C. Ord [US]; Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 301 total (US 71; CS 230)

Description: Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart led a brigade-sized mixed force of cavalry, infantry, and artillery to protect a foraging expedition in the vicinity of Dranesville. Union Brig. Gen. E.O.C. Ord, advancing on the Georgetown Pike, encountered Stuart’s cavalry. Both sides deployed as more units arrived on the field, and a sharp firefight developed. Stuart withdrew in the mid-afternoon after ensuring that his wagons were safely in the rear.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Virginia 18612019-08-09T21:36:12-04:00

Civil War Battles in New Mexico

All Civil War battles in New Mexico. They are in the order in which they occurred during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in New Mexico

Civil War Battles in New Mexico


Valverde

Civil War battles in New Mexico

Other Names: None

Location: Socorro County

Campaign: Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (1862)

Date(s): February 20-21, 1862

Principal Commanders: Col. E.R.S. Canby [US]; Brig. Gen. Henry H. Sibley and Col. Thomas Green [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of New Mexico (combination of regular and volunteer units) [US]; Army of New Mexico [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 389 total (US 202; CS 187)

Description: Brig. Gen. Henry H. Sibley led his force of 2,500 men across the Rio Grande River and up the east side of the river to the ford at Valverde, north of Fort Craig, New Mexico, hoping to cut Federal communications between the fort and military headquarters in Santa Fe. Union Col. E.R.S. Canby left Fort Craig with more than 3,000 men to prevent the Confederates from crossing the river. When he was opposite them, across the river, Canby opened fire and sent Union cavalry over, forcing the Rebels back. The Confederates halted their retirement at the Old Rio Grande riverbed, which served as an excellent position. After crossing all his men, Canby decided that a frontal assault would fail and deployed his force to assault and turn the Confederate left flank.

Before he could do so, though, the Rebels attacked. Federals rebuffed a cavalry charge, but the main Confederate force made a frontal attack, capturing six artillery pieces and forcing the Union battle line to break and many of the men to flee. Canby ordered a retreat. Confederate reinforcements arrived and Sibley was about to order another attack when Canby asked for a truce, by a white flag, to remove the bodies of the dead and wounded. Left in possession of the battlefield, the Confederates claimed victory but had suffered heavy casualties. Although the Confederates would soon occupy Santa Fe, they would have to leave New Mexico within four months.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Glorieta Pass

Civil War battles in New Mexico

Other Names: La Glorieta Pass

Location: Santa Fe County and San Miguel County

Campaign: Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (1862)

Date(s): March 26-28, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. John C. Chivington and Col. John P. Slough [US]; Maj. Charles L. Pyron and Lt. Col. William R. Scurry [CS]

Forces Engaged: Northern Division, Army of New Mexico [US]; 4th, 5th, and 7th Texas Cavalry Regiment, artillery, and a company of independent volunteers [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 331 total (US 142; CS 189)

Description: Glorieta Pass was a strategic location, situated at the southern tip of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, southeast of Santa Fe, and on the Santa Fe Trail. In March 1862, a Confederate force of 200-300 Texans under the command of Maj. Charles L. Pyron encamped at Johnson’s Ranch, at one end of the pass. Union Maj. John M. Chivington led more than 400 soldiers to the Pass and on the morning of March 26 moved out to attack. After noon, Chivington’s men captured some Rebel advance troops and then found the main force behind them. Chivington advanced on them, but their artillery fire threw him back. He regrouped, split his force to the two sides of the pass, caught the Rebels in a crossfire, and soon forced them to retire.

Pyron and his men retired about a mile and a half to a narrow section of the pass and formed a defensive line before Chivington’s men appeared. The Yankees flanked Pyron’s men again and punished them with enfilade fire. The Confederates fled again and the Union cavalry charged, capturing the rearguard. Chivington then retired and went into camp at Kozlowski’s Ranch. No fighting occurred the next day as reinforcements arrived for both sides. Lt. Col. William R. Scurry’s troops swelled the Rebel ranks to about 1,100 while Union Col. John P. Slough arrived with about 900 men. Both Slough and Scurry decided to attack and set out early on the 28th to do so. As Scurry advanced down the canyon, he saw the Union forces approaching, so he established a battle line, including his dismounted cavalry. Slough hit them before 11:00 am.

The Confederates held their ground and then attacked and counterattacked throughout the afternoon. The fighting then ended as Slough retired first to Pigeon’s Ranch and then to Kozlowski’s Ranch. Scurry soon left the field also, thinking he had won the battle. Chivington’s men, how-ever, had destroyed all Scurry’s supplies and animals at Johnson’s Ranch, forcing him to retreat to Santa Fe, the first step on the long road back to San Antonio, Texas. The Federals had won and, thereby, stopped Confederate incursions into the Southwest. Glorieta Pass was the turning point of the war in the New Mexico Territory.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in New Mexico2019-07-25T20:39:46-04:00

Civil War Battles in Texas

All Civil War battles in Texas. They are in the order in which they occurred.

Civil War Battles in Texas

Civil War Battles in Texas


Sabine Pass

Civil War battles in Texas

Other Names: None

Location: Jefferson County

Campaign: Operations to Blockade the Texas Coast (1862-63)

Date(s): September 24-25, 1862

Principal Commanders: Acting Master Frederick Crocker [US]; Maj. J.S. Irvine [CS]

Forces Engaged: Steamer Kensington, Schooner Rachel Seaman, and Mortar Schooner Henry James [US]; Fort Griffith Garrison (30) and 25 mounted men 3 1/2 miles away [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: On September 23, 1862, the Union Steamer Kensington, Schooner Rachel Seaman, and Mortar Schooner Henry James appeared off the bar at Sabine Pass. The next morning, the two schooners crossed the bar, took position, and began firing on the Confederate shore battery. The shots from both land and shore fell far short of the targets. The ships then moved nearer until their projectiles began to fall amongst the Confederate guns.

The Confederate cannons, however, still could not hit the ships. After dark, the Confederates evacuated, taking as much property as possible with them and spiking the four guns left behind. On the morning of the 25th, the schooners moved up to the battery and destroyed it while Acting Master Frederick Crocker, commander of the expedition, received the surrender of the town. Union control of Sabine Pass made later incursions into the interior possible.

Result(s): Union victory


Galveston

Civil War battles in Texas

Other Names: None

Location: Galveston County

Campaign: Operations to Blockade the Texas Coast (1862-63)

Date(s): October 4, 1862

Principal Commanders: Cdr. W.B. Renshaw, U.S.N. [US]; Col. Joseph J. Cook and Col. X.B. Debray [CS]

Forces Engaged: None

Estimated Casualties: None

Description: The U.S. Navy began a blockade of Galveston Harbor in July 1861, but the town remained in Confederate hands for the next 14 months. At 6:00 am on October 4, 1862, Cdr. W.B. Renshaw, commanding the blockading ships in the Galveston Bay area, sent Harriet Lane into the harbor, flying a flag of truce. The intention was to inform the military authorities in Galveston that if the town did not surrender, the U.S. Navy ships would attack; a one-hour reply would be demanded. Col. Joseph J. Cook, Confederate military commander in the area, would not come out to the Union ship or send an officer to receive the communication, so Harriet Lane weighed anchor and returned to the fleet.

Four Union steamers, with a mortar boat in tow, entered the harbor and moved to the same area where Harriet Lane had anchored. Observing this activity, Confederates at Fort Point fired one or more shots and the U.S. Navy ships answered. Eventually, the Union ships disabled the one Confederate gun at Fort Point and fired at other targets. Two Rebel guns from another location opened on the Union ships. The boat that Col. Cook had dispatched now approached the Union vessels and two Confederate officers boarded U.S.S. Westfield. Renshaw demanded an unconditional surrender of Galveston or he would begin shelling. Cook refused Renshaw’s terms, and conveyed to Renshaw that upon him rested the responsibility of destroying the town and killing women, children, and aliens.

Renshaw threatened to resume the shelling and made preparations for towing the mortar boat into position. One of the Confederate officers then asked if he could be granted time to talk with Col. Cook again. This officer, a major, negotiated with Renshaw for a four-day truce to evacuate the women, children, and aliens from the city. Cook approved the truce but added a stipulation that if Renshaw would not move troops closer to Galveston, Cook would not permit his men to come below the city.

The agreement was finalized but never written down, which later caused problems. The Confederates did evacuate, taking all of their weapons, ammunition, supplies, and whatever they could carry with them. Renshaw did not think that the agreement allowed for all this but, in the end, did nothing, due to the lack of a written document. The fall of Galveston meant that one more important Confederate port was closed to commerce. But the port of Galveston was not shut down for long.

Result(s): Union victory


Galveston

Civil War battles in Texas

Other Names: None

Location: Galveston County

Campaign: Operations against Galveston (1862-1863)

Date(s): January 1, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. Isaac S. Burrell and Cdr. W.B. Renshaw, U.S.N. [US]; Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder [CS]

Forces Engaged: Companies D, G and I, 42nd Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment and the Blockading ships [US]; four Confederate gunboats and district of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona troops [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 650 total (US 600; CS 50)

Description: Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder, who became the Confederate commander of military forces in Texas on November 29, 1862, gave the recapture of Galveston top priority. At 3:00 am on New Year’s Day, 1863, four Confederate gunboats appeared, coming down the bay toward Galveston. Soon afterward, the Rebels commenced a land attack. The Union forces in Galveston were three companies of the 42nd Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment under the command of Col. Isaac S. Burrell. The Confederates captured or killed all of them except for the regiment’s adjutant.

They also took Harriet Lane, by boarding her, and two barks and a schooner. Cdr. W.B. Renshaw’s flagship, U.S.S. Westfield, ran aground when trying to help Harriet Lane and, at 10:00 am, she was blown up to prevent her capture by the Confederates. Galveston was in Confederate hands again although the Union blockade would limit commerce in and out of the harbor.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Sabine Pass II

Civil War battles in Texas

Other Names: None

Location: Jefferson County

Campaign: Operations to Blockade the Texas Coast (1863)

Date(s): September 8, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin and Capt. Frederick Crocker, U.S.N. [US]; Lt. Richard W. Dowling [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4 gunboats and 7 transports loaded with troops [US]; Texan Davis Guards (44 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: (US 230; CS unknown)

Description: About 6:00 am on the morning of September 8, 1863, a Union flotilla of four gunboats and seven troop transports steamed into Sabine Pass and up the Sabine River with the intention of reducing Fort Griffin and landing troops to begin occupying Texas. As the gunboats approached Fort Griffin, they came under accurate fire from six cannons. The Confederate gunners at Fort Griffin had been sent there as a punishment. To break the day-to-day monotony, the gunners practiced firing artillery at range markers placed in the river. Their practice paid off. Fort Griffin’s small force of 44 men, under command of Lt. Richard W. Dowling, forced the Union flotilla to retire and captured the gunboat Clifton and about 200 prisoners. Further Union operations in the area ceased for about a month. The heroics at Fort Griffin 44 men stopping a Union expedition inspired other Confederate soldiers.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Palmito Ranch

Civil War battles in Texas

Other Names: Palmito Hill

Location: Cameron County

Campaign: Expedition from Brazos Santiago (1865)

Date(s): May 12-13, 1865

Principal Commanders: Col. Theodore H. Barrett [US]; Col. John S. “Rip” Ford [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments from the 62nd U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment, 2nd Texas Cavalry Regiment, and 34th Indiana Volunteer Infantry [US]; Detachments from Gidding’s Regiment, Anderson’s Battalion of Cavalry, and numerous other Confederate units and southern sympathizers [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 118; CS unknown)

Description: Since March 1865, a gentleman’s agreement precluded fighting between Union and Confederate forces on the Rio Grande. In spite of this agreement, Col. Theodore H. Barrett, commanding forces at Brazos Santiago, Texas, dispatched an expedition, composed of 250 men of the 62nd U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment and 50 men of the 2nd Texas Cavalry Regiment under the command of Lt. Col. David Branson, to the mainland, on May 11, 1865, to attack reported Rebel outposts and camps. Prohibited by foul weather from crossing to Point Isabel as instructed, the expedition crossed to Boca Chica much later. At 2:00 am, on May 12, the expeditionary force surrounded the Rebel outpost at White’s Ranch, but found no one there.

Exhausted, having been up most of the night, Branson secreted his command in a thicket and among weeds on the banks of the Rio Grande and allowed his men to sleep. Around 8:30 am, people on the Mexican side of the river informed the Rebels of the Federals whereabouts. Branson promptly led his men off to attack a Confederate camp at Palmito Ranch. After much skirmishing along the way, the Federals attacked the camp and scattered the Confederates. Branson and his men remained at the site to feed themselves and their horses but, at 3:00 pm, a sizable Confederate force appeared, influencing the Federals to retire to White’s Ranch. He sent word of his predicament to Barrett, who reinforced Branson at daybreak, on the 13th, with 200 men of the 34th Indiana Volunteer Infantry.

The augmented force, now commanded by Barrett, started out towards Palmito Ranch, skirmishing most of the way. At Palmito Ranch, they destroyed the rest of the supplies not torched the day before and continued on. A few miles forward, they became involved in a sharp firefight. After the fighting stopped, Barrett led his force back to a bluff at Tulosa on the river where the men could prepare dinner and camp for the night. At 4:00 pm, a large Confederate cavalry force, commanded by Col. John S. Rip Ford, approached, and the Federals formed a battle line.

The Rebels hammered the Union line with artillery. To preclude an enemy flanking movement, Barrett ordered a retreat. The retreat was orderly and skirmishers held the Rebels at a respectable distance. Returning to Boca Chica at 8:00 pm, the men embarked at 4:00 am, on the 14th. This was the last battle in the Civil War. Native, African, and Hispanic Americans were all involved in the fighting. Many combatants reported that firing came from the Mexican shore and that some Imperial Mexican forces crossed the Rio Grande but did not take part in the battle. These reports are unproven.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Civil War Battles in Texas2019-07-25T20:34:48-04:00

Civil War Battles in Missouri

All Civil War battles in Missouri. They are listed in the order in which they occurred.

Civil War Battles in Missouri

Civil War Battles in Missouri


Boonville

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: First Battle of Boonville

Location: Cooper County

Campaign: Operations to Control Missouri (1861)

Date(s): June 17, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon [US]; Col. John S. Marmaduke [CS]

Forces Engaged: Combined force of Missouri troops and Regular U.S. Army (approx. 1,700) [US]; State Guard Troops [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 81 total (US 31; CS 50)

Description: Claiborne Jackson, the pro-Southern Governor of Missouri, wanted the state to secede and join the Confederacy. Union Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon set out to put down Jackson’s Missouri State Guard, commanded by Sterling Price. Reaching Jefferson City, the state capital, Lyon discovered that Jackson and Price had retreated towards Boonville. Lyon reembarked on steamboats, transported his men to below Boonville, marched to the town, and engaged the enemy. In a short fight, Lyon dispersed the Confederates, commanded on the field by Col. John S. Marmaduke, and occupied Boonville. This early victory established Union control of the Missouri River and helped douse attempts to place Missouri in the Confederacy.

Result(s): Union victory


Carthage

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Jasper County

Campaign: Operations to Control Missouri (1861)

Date(s): July 5, 1861

Principal Commanders: Col. Franz Sigel [US]; Governor Claiborne Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigade [US]; Missouri State Guard divisions [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 244 total (US 44; CS 200)

Description: Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon had chased Governor Claiborne Jackson and approximately 4,000 State Militia from the State Capital at Jefferson City and from Boonville, and pursued them. Col. Franz Sigel led another force of about 1,000 into southwest Missouri in search of the governor and his loyal troops. Upon learning that Sigel had encamped at Carthage, on the night of July 4, Jackson took command of the troops with him and formulated a plan to attack the much smaller Union force. The next morning, Jackson closed up to Sigel, established a battle line on a ridge ten miles north of Carthage, and induced Sigel to attack him. Opening with artillery fire, Sigel closed to the attack. Seeing a large Confederate force actually unarmed recruits moving into the woods on his left, he feared that they would turn his flank. He withdrew. The Confederates pursued, but Sigel conducted a successful rearguard action. By evening, Sigel was inside Carthage and under cover of darkness; he retreated to Sarcoxie. The battle had little meaning, but the pro-Southern elements in Missouri, anxious for any good news, championed their first victory.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Liberty

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Blue Mills Landing, Blue Mills

Location: Clay County

Campaign: Operations to Control Missouri (1861)

Date(s): September 17, 1861

Principal Commanders: Lt. Col. John Scott [US]; General D.R. Atchison (Atkinson) [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments of 3rd Iowa Infantry, Home Guards, and artillery (approx. 600 men) [US]; 4th Division, Missouri State Guard [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 126 total (US 56; CS 70)

Description: General D.R. Atchison left Lexington on September 15, 1861, and proceeded to Liberty where he met the Missouri State Guard. On the night of September 16-17, his force crossed the Missouri River to the south side and prepared for a fight with Union troops reported to be in the area. At the same time, Union Lt. Col. John Scott led a force of about 600 men from Cameron, on the 15th, towards Liberty. He left his camp in Centreville, at 2:00 am on the 17th. He arrived in Liberty, sent scouts out to find the enemy, and, about 11:00 am, skirmishing began. At noon, Scott marched in the direction of the firing, approached Blue Mills Landing and, at 3:00 am, struck the Confederate pickets. The Union force began to fall back, though, and the Rebels pursued for some distance. The fight lasted for an hour. The Confederates were consolidating influence in northwestern Missouri.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Wilson’s Creek

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Oak Hills

Location: Greene County and Christian County

Campaign: Operations to Control Missouri (1861)

Date(s): August 10, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon and Maj. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price, Missouri State Guard, and Brig. Gen. Ben McCulloch [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the West [US]; Missouri State Guard and McCulloch’s Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,330 total (US 1,235; CS 1,095)

Description: Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon’s Army of the West was camped at Springfield, Missouri, with Confederate troops under the commands of Brig. Gen. Ben McCulloch approaching. On August 9, both sides formulated plans to attack the other. About 5:00 am on the 10th, Lyon, in two columns commanded by himself and Col. Franz Sigel, attacked the Confederates on Wilson’s Creek about 12 miles southwest of Springfield. Rebel cavalry received the first blow and fell back away from Bloody Hill. Confederate forces soon rushed up and stabilized their positions. The Confederates attacked the Union forces three times that day but failed to break through the Union line. Lyon was killed during the battle and Maj. Samuel D. Sturgis replaced him. Meanwhile, the Confederates had routed Sigel’s column, south of Skegg’s Branch.

Following the third Confederate attack, which ended at 11:00 am, the Confederates withdrew. Sturgis realized, however, that his men were exhausted and his ammunition was low, so he ordered a retreat to Springfield. The Confederates were too disorganized and ill-equipped to pursue. This Confederate victory buoyed southern sympathizers in Missouri and served as a springboard for a bold thrust north that carried Price and his Missouri State Guard as far as Lexington. In late October, a rump convention, convened by Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson, met in Neosho and passed an ordinance of secession. Wilson’s Creek, the most significant 1861 battle in Missouri, gave the Confederates control of southwestern Missouri.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Dry Wood Creek

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Big Dry Wood Creek, Battle of the Mules

Location: Vernon County

Campaign: Operations to Control Missouri (1861)

Date(s): September 2, 1861

Principal Commanders: Col. J.H. Lane [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price and Brig. Gen. James S. Rains [CS]

Forces Engaged: Kansas Cavalry Brigade (approx. 600) [US]; column of Missouri State Guard [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 14; CS unknown)

Description: Col. J.H. Lane’s cavalry, comprising about 600 men, set out from Fort Scott to learn the whereabouts of a rumored Confederate force. They encountered a Confederate force, about 6,000-strong, near Big Dry Wood Creek. The Union cavalry surprised the Confederates, but their numerical superiority soon determined the encounter’s outcome. They forced the Union cavalry to retire and captured their mules, and the Confederates continued on towards Lexington. The Confederates were forcing the Federals to abandon southwestern Missouri and to concentrate on holding the Missouri Valley.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Lexington

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Battle of the Hemp Bales

Location: Lafayette County

Campaign: Operations to Control Missouri (1861)

Date(s): September 13-20, 1861

Principal Commanders: Col. James A. Mulligan [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price [CS]

Forces Engaged: Garrison (approx. 3,500) [US]; Missouri State Guard (12,000) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,874 total (US 1,774; CS 100)

Description: Following the victory at Wilson’s Creek, the Confederate Missouri State Guard, having consolidated forces in the northern and central part of the state, marched, under the command of Maj. Gen. Sterling Price, on Lexington. Col. James A. Mulligan commanded the entrenched Union garrison of about 3,500 men. Price’s men first encountered Union skirmishers on September 13 south of town and pushed them back into the fortifications. Price, having bottled the Union troops up in Lexington, decided to await his ammunition wagons, other supplies, and reinforcements before assaulting the fortifications. By the 18th, Price was ready and ordered an assault.

The Missouri State Guard moved forward amidst heavy Union artillery fire and pushed the enemy back into their inner works. On the 19th, the Rebels consolidated their positions, kept the Yankees under heavy artillery fire and prepared for the final attack. Early on the morning of the 20th, Price’s men advanced behind mobile breastworks, made of hemp, close enough to take the Union works at the Anderson House in a final rush. Mulligan requested surrender terms after noon, and by 2:00 pm his men had vacated their works and stacked their arms. This Unionist stronghold had fallen, further bolstering southern sentiment and consolidating Confederate control in the Missouri Valley west of Arrow Rock.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Fredericktown

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Madison County

Campaign: Operations to Control Missouri (1861)

Date(s): October 21, 1861

Principal Commanders: Col. J.B. Plummer and Col. William P. Carlin [US]; Brig. Gen. M. Jeff Thompson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigade size force (approx. 2,500-3,500) [US]; Missouri State Guard [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US unknown; CS 62)

Description: Two Union columns, one under Col. J.B. Plummer and another under Col. William P. Carlin, advanced on Fredericktown to overtake Brig. Gen. M. Jeff Thompson and his men. On the morning of October 21, Thompson’s force left Fredericktown headed south. About twelve miles out, Thompson left his supply train in a secure position and returned toward Fredericktown. He then learned that Union forces had occupied Fredericktown, so Thompson spent the morning attempting to discern the enemy numbers and disposition. Unable to do so, he attacked anyway, around noon. Plummer, with his force and a detachment of Col. William P. Carlin’s troops, met the Rebel forces outside town and a two-hour fight ensued. Overwhelming Union forces took their toll, and Thompson’s men retreated. Union cavalry pursued. Fredericktown cemented Union control of southeastern Missouri.

Result(s): Union victory


Springfield

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Zagonyi’s Charge

Location: Greene County

Campaign: Operations to Control Missouri (1861)

Date(s): October 25, 1861

Principal Commanders: Maj. James Zagonyi [US]; Col. James Frazier [CS]

Forces Engaged: Prairie Scouts and Frémont’s Body Guard [US]; Missouri State Guard troops [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 218 total (US 85; CS 133)

Description: Having accomplished little since taking command of the Western Department, with headquarters in St. Louis, Missouri, Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont formulated a plan to clear Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s Rebels from the state and then, if possible, carry the war into Arkansas and Louisiana. Leaving St. Louis on October 7, 1861, Frémont’s combined force eventually numbered more than 20,000. His accompanying cavalry force, numbering 5,000 men and other mounted troops, included Maj. Frank J. White’s Prairie Scouts and Frémont’s Body Guards under Maj. Charles Zagonyi. Maj. White became ill and turned his command over to Zagonyi.

These two units operated in front of Frémont’s army to gather intelligence. As Frémont neared Springfield, the local state guard commander, Col. Julian Frazier, sent out requests to nearby localities for additional troops. Frémont camped on the Pomme de Terre River, about 50 miles from Springfield. Zagonyi’s column, though, continued on to Springfield, and Frazier’s force of 1,000 to 1,500 prepared to meet it. Frazier set up an ambush along the road that Zagonyi travelled, but the Union force charged the Rebels, sending them fleeing. Zagonyi’s men continued into town, hailed Federal sympathizers and released Union prisoners. Leery of a Confederate counterattack, Zagonyi departed Springfield before night, but Frémont’s army returned, in force, a few days later and set up camp in the town. In mid-November, after Frémont was sacked and replaced by Maj. Gen. Hunter, the Federals evacuated Springfield and withdrew to Sedalia and Rolla. Federal troops reoccupied Springfield in early 1862 and it was a Union stronghold from then on. This engagement at Springfield was the only Union victory in southwestern Missouri in 1861.

Result(s): Union victory


Belmont

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Mississippi County

Campaign: Operations at the Ohio and Mississippi River Confluence (1861)

Date(s): November 7, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Brig. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow [CS]

Forces Engaged: Division [US]; division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,464 total (US 498; CS 966)

Description: On November 6, 1861, Brig. Gen. U.S. Grant left Cairo, Illinois, by steamers, in conjunction with two gunboats, to make a demonstration against Columbus, Kentucky. The next morning, Grant learned that Confederate troops had crossed the Mississippi River from Columbus to Belmont, Missouri, to intercept two detachments sent in pursuit of Brig. Gen. M. Jeff Thompson and, possibly, to reinforce Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s force. He landed on the Missouri shore, out of the range of Confederate artillery at Columbus, and started marching the mile to Belmont. At 9:00 in the morning, an engagement began. The Federals routed the Confederates out of their Belmont cantonment and destroyed the Rebel supplies and equipment they found because they did not have the means to carry them off. The scattered Confederate forces reorganized and received reinforcements from Columbus. Counterattacked by the Confederates, the Union force withdrew, reembarked, and returned to Cairo. Grant did not accomplish much in this operation, but, at a time when little Union action occurred anywhere, many were heartened by any activity.

Result(s): Union victory


Mount Zion Church

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Boone County

Campaign: Operations in Northeast Missouri (1861-62)

Date(s): December 28, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Benjamin M. Prentiss [US]; Col. Caleb Dorsey [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments of the 3rd Missouri Cavalry Regiment (approx. 240) and Birge’s Sharpshooters (approx. 200) [US]; unknown [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 282 total (US 72; CS 210)

Description: Brig. Gen. Benjamin M. Prentiss led a Union force of 5 mounted companies and 2 companies of Birge’s sharpshooters into Boone County to protect the North Missouri Railroad and overawe secessionist sentiment there. After arriving in Sturgeon on December 26, Prentiss learned of a band of Rebels near Hallsville. He sent a company to Hallsville the next day that fought a Confederate force under the command of Col. Caleb Dorsey and suffered numerous casualties, including many taken prisoner, before retreating to Sturgeon. On the 28th, Prentiss set out with his entire force to meet Dorsey’s Rebels. He routed one company of Confederates on the road from Hallsville to Mount Zion and learned that the rest of the force was at Mount Zion Church. Prentiss headed for the church. After a short battle, the Confederates retreated, leaving their killed and wounded on the battlefield and abandoning many animals, weapons, and supplies. This action and others curtailed Rebel recruiting activities in Central Missouri.

Result(s): Union victory


Roan’s Tan Yard

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Silver Creek

Location: Randolf County

Campaign: Operations in Northeast Missouri (1861-62)

Date(s): January 8, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. W.M.G. Torrence [US]; Col. J.A. Poindexter [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments from the 1st and 2nd Missouri Cavalry, 4th Ohio Cavalry, and 1st Iowa Cavalry (450) [US]; unknown [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 91 total (US 11; CS 80)

Description: Rumors and sightings of a Confederate force in the Howard County area had circulated for more than a week, but the Union troops could not locate them. On January 7, 1862, information came to hand that Col. J.A. Poindexter and his Confederate force were camped on Silver Creek. Detachments from various Union units came together and headed towards the Confederate camp which was about 14 miles northwest of Fayette. After finding the camp, the force attacked, routing the enemy and sending those that were not killed, wounded, or captured fleeing for safety. Afterwards, the Union force destroyed the camp to prevent its further use. The Confederates could no longer use their Randolph County base for recruiting and raiding.

Result(s): Union victory


New Madrid/Island No. 10

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: City of New Madrid, Missouri; Lake County, Tennessee

Campaign: Joint Operations on the Middle Mississippi River (1862)

Date(s): February 28-April 8, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John Pope and Flag-Officer Andrew H. Foote [US]; Brig. Gen. John P. McCown and Brig. Gen. William W. Mackall [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Mississippi [US]; Garrisons of New Madrid and Island No. 10 [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: With the surrender of Forts Henry and Donelson, Tennessee, and the evacuation of Columbus, Kentucky, Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, commander of the Confederate Army of the Mississippi, chose Island No. 10, about 60 river miles below Columbus, to be the strongpoint for defending the Mississippi River. Nearby was New Madrid, one of the weak points. Brig. Gen. John Pope, commander of the Union Army of the Mississippi, set out from Commerce, Missouri, to attack New Madrid, on February 28. The force marched overland through swamps, lugging supplies and artillery, reached the New Madrid outskirts on March 3, and laid siege to the city. Brig. Gen. John P. McCown, the garrison commander, defended both New Madrid and Island No. 10 from the fortifications.

He launched a sortie, under Brig. Gen. M. Jeff Thompson, Missouri State Guard, against the besiegers and brought up heavy artillery to bombard them. On the 13th, the Confederates bombarded the Yankees to no avail. Since it did not appear possible to defend New Madrid, the Confederate gunboats and troops evacuated to Island No. 10 and Tiptonville. On the 14th, Pope’s army discovered that New Madrid was deserted and moved in to occupy it. A U.S. Navy flotilla, under the command of Flag-Officer Andrew H. Foote, arrived March 15 upstream from Island No. 10. The ironclad Carondelet on the night of April 4 passed the Island No. 10 batteries and anchored off New Madrid. Pittsburgh followed on the night of April 6. The ironclads helped to overawe the Confederate batteries and guns, enabling Pope’s men to cross the river and block the Confederate escape route. Brig. Gen. William W. Mackall, who replaced McCown, surrendered Island No. 10 on April 8. The Mississippi was now open down to Fort Pillow, Tennessee.

Result(s): Union victory


Kirksville

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Adair County

Campaign: Operations North of Boston Mountains (1862)

Date(s): August 6-9, 1862

Principal Commanders: Col. John McNeil [US]; Col. Joseph C. Porter [CS]

Forces Engaged: Combined force (cavalry and artillery) [US]; Missouri Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 456 total (US 88; CS 368)

Description: Col. John McNeil and his troops, numbering about 1,000, had been pursuing Col. Joseph C. Porter and his Confederate Missouri Brigade of 2,500 men for more than a week. Before noon on August 6, McNeil attacked Porter in the town of Kirksville, where his men had hidden themselves in homes and stores and among the crops in the nearby fields. After almost three hours of fighting, the Yankees secured the town, captured numerous prisoners, and chased the others away. Three days later, another Union force met and finished the work begun at Kirksville, destroying Porter’s command. Kirksville helped consolidate Union dominance in northeastern Missouri.

Result(s): Union victory


Independence

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Jackson County

Campaign: Operations North of Boston Mountains (1862)

Date(s): August 11, 1862

Principal Commanders: Lt. Col. James T. Buel [US]; Col. J.T. Hughes and Col. G.W. Thompson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Garrison (approx. 300 [US]; 700-800[CS])

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US approx. 344; CS unknown)

Description: On August 11, 1862, Col. J.T. Hughes’s Confederate force, including William Quantrill, attacked Independence, at dawn, in two columns on different roads. They drove through the town to the Union Army camp, capturing, killing, and scattering the Yankees. Lt. Col. James T. Buel, commander of the garrison, attempted to hold out in one of the buildings with some of his men. Soon the building next to them was on fire, threatening them. Buel then, by means of a flag of truce, arranged a meeting with the Confederate commander, Col. G.W. Thompson, who had replaced Col. J.T. Hughes, killed earlier. Buel surrendered and about 150 of his men were paroled, the others had escaped, hidden, or been killed. Having taken Independence, the Rebel force headed for Kansas City. Confederate dominance in the Kansas City area continued, but not for long.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Lone Jack

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Jackson County

Campaign: Operations North of Boston Mountains (1862)

Date(s): August 15-16, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Emory S. Foster [US]; Col. Jeremiah Vard Cockrell, Col. G.W. Thompson, and Col. Upton Hays [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments from fourteen companies of cavalry and a section of artillery (800 men) [US]; unknown [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 270 total (US 160; CS 110)

Description: Maj. Emory S. Foster, under orders, led an 800-man combined force from Lexington to Lone Jack. Upon reaching the Lone Jack area, he discovered 1,600 Rebels under Col. J.T. Coffee and prepared to attack them. About 9:00 pm on the 15th, he and his men attacked the Confederate camp and dispersed the force. Early the next morning, Union pickets informed Foster that a 3,000-man Confederate force was advancing on him. Soon afterwards, this force attacked and a battle ensued that involved charges, retreats, and counterattacks. After five hours of fighting and the loss of Foster, Coffee and his 1,500 men reappeared, causing Foster’s successor, Capt. M.H. Brawner to order a retreat. The men left the field in good order and returned to Lexington. This was a Confederate victory, but the Rebels had to evacuate the area soon afterward, when threatened by the approach of large Union forces. Except for a short period of time during Price’s Raid, in 1864, the Confederacy lost its clout in Jackson County.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Newtonia

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Newton County

Campaign: Operations North of Boston Mountains (1862)

Date(s): September 30, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Friedrich Salomon [US]; Col. Douglas H. Cooper [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two brigades, Army of Kansas (1,500) [US]; Cooper’s Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 345 total (US 245; CS 100)

Description: Following the Battle of Pea Ridge, in March 1862, most Confederate and Union troops left northwestern Arkansas and southwestern Missouri. By late summer, Confederates returned to the area, which caused much apprehension in nearby Federally-occupied Springfield, Missouri, and Fort Scott, Kansas. Confederate Col. Douglas Cooper reached the area on the 27th and assigned two of his units to Newtonia where there was a mill for making breadstuffs. In mid-September, two brigades of Brig. Gen. James G. Blunt’s Union Army of Kansas left Fort Scott for Southwest Missouri. On the 29th, Union scouts approached Newtonia but were chased away. Other Union troops appeared in nearby Granby where there were lead mines, and Cooper sent some reinforcements there. The next morning, Union troops appeared before Newtonia and fighting ensued by 7:00 am. The Federals began driving the enemy, but Confederate reinforcements arrived, swelling the numbers.

The Federals gave way and retreated in haste. As they did so, some of their reinforcements appeared and helped to stem their retreat. The Union forces then renewed the attack, threatening the enemy right flank. But newly arrived Confederates stopped that attack and eventually forced the Federals to retire again. Pursuit of the Federals continued after dark. Union gunners posted artillery in the roadway to halt the pursuit. As Confederate gunners observed the Union artillery fire for location, they fired back, creating panic. The Union retreat turned into a rout as some ran all the way to Sarcoxie, more than ten miles away. Although the Confederates won the battle, they were unable to maintain themselves in the area given the great numbers of Union troops. Most Confederates retreated into northwest Arkansas. The 1862 Confederate victories in southwestern Missouri at Newtonia and Clark’s Mill were the South’s apogee in the area; afterwards, the only Confederates in the area belonged to raiding columns.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Clark’s Mill

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Vera Cruz

Location: Douglas County

Campaign: Operations North of Boston Mountains (1862)

Date(s): November 7, 1862

Principal Commanders: Capt. Hiram E. Barstow [US]; Col. John Q. Burbridge and Col. Colton Greene [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments of 10th Illinois Cavalry and State Militia (approx. 100 men) [US]; cavalry brigade (approx. 1,000 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 113; CS unknown)

Description: Having received reports that Confederate troops were in the area, Capt. Hiram E. Barstow, Union commander at Clark’s Mill, sent a detachment toward Gainesville and he led another southeastward. Barstow’s men ran into a Confederate force, skirmished with them and drove them back. His column then fell back to Clark’s Mill where he learned that another Confederate force was coming from the northeast. Unlimbering artillery to command both approach roads, Barstow was soon engaged in a five-hour fight with the enemy. Under a white flag, the Confederates demanded a surrender, and the Union, given their numerical inferiority, accepted. The Confederates paroled the Union troops and departed after burning the blockhouse at Clark’s Mill. Clark’s Mill helped the Confederates to maintain a toehold in southwest Missouri.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Springfield

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Greene County

Campaign: Marmaduke’s First Expedition into Missouri (1862-63)

Date(s): January 8, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Egbert B. Brown [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke [CS]

Forces Engaged: Southwestern District of Missouri Troops (2,000) [US]; 4th Division, I Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 403 total (US 163; CS 240)

Description: Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke’s expedition into Missouri reached Ozark, where it destroyed the Union post, and then approached Springfield on the morning of January 8, 1863. Springfield was an important Federal communications center and supply depot so the Rebels wished to destroy it. The Union army had constructed fortifications to defend the town. Their ranks, however, were depleted because Francis J. Herron’s two divisions had not yet returned from their victory at Prairie Grove on December 7. After receiving a report on January 7 of the Rebels approach, Brig. Gen. Egbert B. Brown set about preparing for the attack and rounding up additional troops. Around 10:00 am, the Confederates advanced in battle line to the attack. The day included desperate fighting with attacks and counterattacks until after dark, but the Federal troops held and the Rebels withdrew during the night. Brown had been wounded during the day. The Confederates appeared in force the next morning but retired without attacking. The Federal depot was successfully defended, and Union strength in the area continued.

Result(s): Union victory, although the raid ultimately failed.


Hartville

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Wright County

Campaign: Marmaduke’s First Expedition into Missouri (1862-63)

Date(s): January 9-11, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. Samuel Merrill [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachment of infantry, cavalry, and artillery (approx. 700) [US]; 4th Division, I Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 407 total (US 78; CS 329)

Description: John S. Marmaduke led a Confederate raid into Missouri in early January 1863. This movement was two-pronged. Col. Joseph C. Porter led one column, comprising his Missouri Cavalry Brigade, out of Pocahontas, Arkansas, to assault Union posts around Hartville, Missouri. When he neared Hartville, on January 9, he sent a detachment forward to reconnoiter. It succeeded in capturing the small garrison and occupying the town. The same day, Porter moved on toward Marshfield. On the 10th, some of Porter’s men raided other Union installations in the area before catching up with Marmaduke’s column east of Marshfield.

Marmaduke had received reports of Union troops approaching to surround him and prepared for a confrontation. Col. Samuel Merrill, commander of the approaching Union column, arrived in Hartville, discovered that the garrison had already surrendered and set out after the Confederates. A few minutes later, fighting began. Marmaduke feared being cut off from his retreat route back to Arkansas so he pushed Merrill’s force back to Hartville, where it established a defense line. Here, a four-hour battle ensued in which the Confederates suffered many casualties but compelled the Yankees to retreat. Although they won the battle, the Confederates were forced to abandon the raid and return to friendly territory.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Cape Girardeau

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Cape Girardeau City

Campaign: Marmaduke’s Second Expedition into Missouri (1863)

Date(s): April 26, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John McNeil [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke [CS]

Forces Engaged: Garrison plus some reinforcements [US]; cavalry division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 337 total (US 12; CS 325)

Description: Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke sought to strike Brig. Gen. John McNeil, with his combined force of about 2,000 men, at Bloomfield, Missouri. McNeil retreated and Marmaduke followed. Marmaduke received notification, on April 25, that McNeil was near Cape Girardeau. He sent troops to destroy or capture McNeil’s force, but then he learned that the Federals had placed themselves in the fortifications. Marmaduke ordered one of his brigades to make a demonstration to ascertain the Federals strength. Col. John S. Shelby’s brigade made the demonstration which escalated into an attack. Those Union forces not already in fortifications retreated into them. Realizing the Federals strength, Marmaduke withdrew his division to Jackson. After finding the force he had been chasing, Marmaduke was repulsed. Meant to relieve pressure on other Confederate troops and to disrupt Union operations, Marmaduke’s expedition did little to fulfill either objective.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Davidson

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Pilot Knob

Location: Iron County

Campaign: Price’s Missouri Expedition (1864)

Date(s): September 27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Thomas Ewing, Jr. [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price [CS]

Forces Engaged: Garrison [US]; Army of Missouri [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,684 total (US 184; CS 1,500)

Description: In September 1864, a Confederate army under Maj. Gen. Sterling Price crossed into Missouri with the goal of capturing St. Louis. Union Brig. Gen. Thomas Ewing moved with reinforcements down the railroad to Ironton to retard Price’s advance. On the morning of September 27, the Confederates attacked, driving the Federals back into their defenses anchored by Fort Davidson. In the late afternoon, Price unsuccessfully assaulted the fort repeatedly, suffering heavy casualties. Price, considering the possible time involved, had dismissed the possibility of mounting guns on the high ground to compel the fort to surrender or to shell the garrison into submission. During the night, the Federals evacuated the fort. Price had paid a high price in lives and gave Union forces the necessary time to concentrate and oppose his raid.

Result(s): Union victory


Glasgow

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Howard County

Campaign: Price’s Missouri Expedition (1864)

Date(s): October 15, 1864

Principal Commanders: Col. Chester Harding [US]; Brig. Gen. John B. Clark and Brig. Gen. Joe Shelby [CS]

Forces Engaged: Garrison (800) [US]; unknown [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 450 total (US 400; CS 50)

Description: While Maj. Gen. Sterling Price led his men westward across Missouri, he decided to send a detachment to Glasgow toliberate weapons and supplies in an arms storehouse, purported to be there. This combined mounted infantry, cavalry, and artillery force laid siege to the town and the fortifications on Hereford Hill.

Before dawn on October 15, Confederate artillery opened on the town and Rebels advanced on Glasgow by various routes, forcing the Yankees to fall back. The Union forces retreated out of town and up the hill toward the fortifications on Hereford Hill. There they formed a defensive line in this area, but the Confederates continued to advance. Convinced that he could not defend against another Confederate attack, Col. Chester Harding surrendered around 1:30 pm. Although Harding destroyed some Federal stores, Price’s men found rifle-muskets, overcoats, and horses. The Confederates remained in town for three days before rejoining the main column with new supplies and weapons and marching on towards Kansas City. The victory and capture of supplies and weapons were a boost to Price’s army’s morale.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Lexington

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Lafayette County

Campaign: Price’s Missouri Expedition (1864)

Date(s): October 19, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price [CS]

Forces Engaged: 1st Division, Army of the Border [US]; Army of Missouri [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s march along the Missouri River was slow, providing the Yankees a chance to concentrate. Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, commanding the Department of the Missouri, proposed a pincer movement to trap Price and his army, but he was unable to communicate with Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, commander of the Department of Kansas, to formalize the plan. Curtis was having problems because many of his troops were Kansas militia and they refused to enter Missouri, but a force of 2,000 men under the command of Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt did set out for Lexington. On October 19, Price’s army approached Lexington, collided with Union scouts and pickets about 2:00 pm, drove them back, and engaged in a battle with the main force. The Yankees resisted at first, but Price’s army eventually pushed them through the town to the western outskirts and pursued them along the Independence Road until night fall. Without Curtis’s entire force, the Yankees could not stop Price’s army, but they did further retard their slow march. Blunt gained valuable information about the size and disposition of Price’s army.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Little Blue River

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Westport

Location: Jackson County

Campaign: Price’s Missouri Expedition (1864)

Date(s): October 21, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price [CS]

Forces Engaged: 1st Division, Army of the Border [US]; Army of Missouri [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Price’s march along the Missouri River was slow, providing the Yankees a chance to concentrate. Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, commanding the Department of the Missouri, proposed a pincer movement to trap Price and his army, but he was unable to communicate with Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, commander of the Department of Kansas, to formalize the plan. Curtis was having problems because many of his troops were Kansas militia and they refused to enter Missouri, but a force of about 2,000 men under the command of Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt did set out for Lexington. He met the Confederate troops at Lexington on the 19th, slowed their progress, but was defeated and retreated. On the 20th, Blunt’s troops arrived on the Little Blue River, eight miles east of Independence.

The Union force prepared to engage the Confederates again in a strong defensive position on the west bank. Curtis, however, ordered Blunt into Independence while leaving a small force, under Col. Thomas Moonlight, on the Little Blue. The next day, Curtis ordered Blunt to take all of the volunteers and return to the Little Blue. As he neared the stream, he discovered that Moonlight’s small force had burned the bridge as ordered, engaged the enemy, and retreated away from the strong defensive position occupied the day before, crossing the river. Blunt entered the fray and attempted to drive the enemy back beyond the defensive position that he wished to reoccupy. The Yankees forced the Confederates to fall back, at first, but their numerical superiority took its toll in the five-hour battle. The Federals retreated to Independence and went into camp there after dark. Once again, the Confederates had been slowed and more Union reinforcements were arriving.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Independence

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Jackson County

Campaign: Price’s Missouri Expedition (1864)

Date(s): October 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton [US]; Brig. Gen. James Fagan and Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke [CS]

Forces Engaged: Provisional cavalry division [US]; Fagan and Marmaduke’s Divisions, Army of Missouri [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US unknown; CS 140)

Description: Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s army rode west in the direction of Kansas City. On the night of the 21st, he camped at Independence and resumed his westward march the next morning with Brig. Gen. Joe Shelby’s division in the lead followed by Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke’s division, with Brig. Gen. James Fagan’s division bringing up the rear. While Shelby’s men met success at Byram’s Ford, the other two columns did not fare as well. Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton’s Union force crossed the Little Blue, beat up a Rebel brigade in Fagan’s command, and occupied Independence. Marmaduke’s division then met Pleasonton about two miles west of Independence, hit the Federals hard, pressed them back, and held them at bay until the morning of the 23rd. Pleasonton’s actions, however, frightened Price and his army, and influenced them, after they had crossed the Big Blue, to send their wagon trains to Little Santa Fe on the Fort Scott Road.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Byram’s Ford

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Big Blue River

Location: Jackson County

Campaign: Price’s Missouri Expedition (1864)

Date(s): October 22-23, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt and Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton [US]; Brig. Gen. Joseph Shelby and Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke [CS]

Forces Engaged: 1st Division, Army of the Border and provisional cavalry division [US]; Shelby and Marmaduke’s Divisions [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s Army of Missouri was headed west towards Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth. Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis’s Army of the Border, in and around Westport, was blocking the Confederates way west and Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton’s provisional cavalry division was pressing Price’s army’s rear. Price had nearly 500 wagons with him and required a good ford over the Big Blue River to facilitate the passage of his supplies. Byram’s Ford was the best ford in the area and became a strategic point during the fighting around Westport. On October 22, Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt’s division held a defensive position on the Big Blue River’s west bank. Around 10:00 am on the 22nd, part of Brig. Gen. Joseph O. Shelby’s Confederate division conducted a frontal attack on Blunt’s men.

This attack was a ruse because the rest of Shelby’s men flanked Blunt’s hasty defenses, forcing the Federals to retire to Westport. Price’s wagon train and about 5,000 head of cattle then crossed the Big Blue River at Byram’s Ford and headed southward toward Little Santa Fe and safety. Pleasonton’s cavalry was hot on the tail of Price’s army. Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke’s Rebel division held the west bank of the Big Blue at Byram’s Ford to prevent Pleasonton from attacking Price’s rear. Pleasonton assaulted Marmaduke at Byram’s Ford, around 8:00 am, on the 23rd. Three hours later, Marmaduke’s men had enough and fell back toward Westport. With Pleasonton across the river, he was now an additional threat to Price who was fighting Curtis’s Army of the Border at Westport. Price had to retreat south.

Result(s): Union victory


Westport

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Jackson County

Campaign: Price’s Missouri Expedition (1864)

Date(s): October 23, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Border [US]; Army of Missouri [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,000 total (US 1,500; CS 1,500)

Description: Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s Missouri Expedition had changed course from St. Louis and Jefferson City to Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth. As his army neared Kansas City, Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis’s Army of the Border blocked its way west, while Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton’s provisional cavalry division was closing on their rear. Price decided that he needed to deal with the two Union forces and decided to attack them one at a time. With Pleasonton still behind him, Price chose to strike Curtis at Westport first. Curtis had established strong defensive lines and during a four-hour battle, the Confederates hurled themselves at the Union forces but to no avail. The Rebels could not break the Union lines and retreated south. Westport was the decisive battle of Price’s Missouri Expedition, and from this point on, the Rebels were in retreat.

Result(s): Union victory


Marmiton River

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: Shiloh Creek, Charlot’s Farm

Location: Vernon County

Campaign: Price’s Missouri Expedition (1864)

Date(s): October 25, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John H. McNeil [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two brigades, provisional cavalry division [US]; Army of Missouri [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Following the Battle of Mine Creek, Maj. Gen. Sterling Price continued his cartage towards Fort Scott. In late afternoon of October 25, Price’s supply train had difficulty crossing the Marmiton River ford and, like at Mine Creek, Price had to make a stand. Brig. Gen. John S. McNeil, commanding two brigades of Pleasonton’s cavalry division, attacked the Confederate troops that Price and his officers rallied, included a sizable number of unarmed men. McNeil observed the sizable Confederate force, not knowing that many of them were unarmed, and refrained from an all out assault. After about two hours of skirmishing, Price continued his retreat and McNeil could not mount an effective pursuit. Price’s army was broken by this time, and it was simply a question of how many men he could successfully evacuate to friendly territory.

Result(s): Union victory


Newtonia

Civil War battles in Missouri

Other Names: None

Location: Newton County

Campaign: Price’s Missouri Expedition (1864)

Date(s): October 28, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price [CS]

Forces Engaged: Five brigades [US]; remnants of Price’s Army of Missouri [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 650 total (US 400; CS 250)

Description: Price’s force was in full retreat following its expedition into Missouri. On October 28, 1864, it stopped to rest about two miles south of Newtonia, Missouri. Soon afterward, Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt’s Union troops surprised the Confederates and began to drive them. Brig. Gen. Joe Shelby’s division, including his Iron Brigade, rode to the front, dismounted, and engaged the Yankees while the other Rebel troops retreated towards Indian Territory. Brig. Gen. John B. Sanborn later appeared with Union reinforcements which convinced Shelby to retire. The Union troops forced the Confederates to retreat but failed to destroy or capture them.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Missouri2019-07-25T20:40:29-04:00

Civil War Battles in Tennessee

All Civil War battles in Tennessee. They are in the order that they occurred during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in Tennessee

Civil War Battles in Tennessee


Fort Henry

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Stewart County and Henry County, Tennessee, and Calloway County, Kentucky

Campaign: Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers (1862)

Date(s): February 6, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Flag-Officer A.H. Foote [US]; Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman [CS]

Forces Engaged: District of Cairo [US]; Fort Henry Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 119 total (US 40; CS 79)

Description: By February 1862, Fort Henry, a Confederate earthen fort on the Tennessee River with outdated guns, was partially inundated and the river threatened to flood the rest. On February 4-5, Brig. Gen. U.S. Grant landed his divisions in two different locations, one on the east bank of the Tennessee River to prevent the garrison’s escape and the other to occupy the high ground on the Kentucky side which would insure the fort’s fall; Flag-Officer Andrew H. Foote’s seven gunboats began bombarding the fort. Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman, commander of the fort’s garrison, realized that it was only a matter of time before Fort Henry fell.

While leaving artillery in the fort to hold off the Union fleet, he escorted the rest of his force out of the area and sent them safely off on the route to Fort Donelson, 10 miles away. Tilghman then returned to the fort and, soon afterwards, surrendered to the fleet, which had engaged the fort and closed within 400 yards. Fort Henry’s fall opened the Tennessee River to Union gunboats and shipping as far as Muscle Shoals, Alabama. After the fall of Fort Donelson, ten days later, the two major water transportation routes in the Confederate west, bounded by the Appalachians and the Mississippi River, became Union highways for movement of troops and material.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Donelson

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Stewart County

Campaign: Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers (1862)

Date(s): February 11-16, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Flag-Officer A.H. Foote [US]; Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd, Brig. Gen. Gideon Pillow, and Brig. Gen. Simon B. Buckner [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army in the Field [US]; Fort Donelson Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 17,398 total (US 2,331; CS 15,067)

Description: After capturing Fort Henry on February 6, 1862, Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant advanced cross-country to invest Fort Donelson. On February 16, 1862, after the failure of their all-out attack aimed at breaking through Grant’s investment lines, the fort’s 12,000-man garrison surrendered unconditionally. This was a major victory for Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and a catastrophe for the South. It ensured that Kentucky would stay in the Union and opened up Tennessee for a Northern advance along the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. Grant received a promotion to major general for his victory and attained stature in the Western Theater, earning the nom de guerre Unconditional Surrender.

Result(s): Union victory


Shiloh

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: Pittsburg Landing

Location: Hardin County

Campaign: Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers (1862)

Date(s): April 6-7, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell [US]; Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston and Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee and Army of the Ohio (65,085) [US]; Army of the Mississippi (44,968) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 23,746 total (US 13,047; CS 10,699)

Description: As a result of the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson, Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, the commander in the area, was forced to fall back, giving up Kentucky and much of West and Middle Tennessee. He chose Corinth, Mississippi, a major transportation center, as the staging area for an offensive against Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee before the Army of the Ohio, under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, could join it. The Confederate retrenchment was a surprise, although a pleasant one, to the Union forces, and it took Grant, with about 40,000 men, some time to mount a southern offensive, along the Tennessee River, toward Pittsburg Landing. Grant received orders to await Buell’s Army of the Ohio at Pittsburg Landing.

Grant did not choose to fortify his position; rather, he set about drilling his men many of which were raw recruits. Johnston originally planned to attack Grant on April 4, but delays postponed it until the 6th. Attacking the Union troops on the morning of the 6th, the Confederates surprised them, routing many. Some Federals made determined stands and by afternoon, they had established a battle line at the sunken road, known as the Hornets Nest. Repeated Rebel attacks failed to carry the Hornets Nest, but massed artillery helped to turn the tide as Confederates surrounded the Union troops and captured, killed, or wounded most. Johnston had been mortally wounded earlier and his second in command, Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, took over.

The Union troops established another line covering Pittsburg Landing, anchored with artillery and augmented by Buell’s men who began to arrive and take up positions. Fighting continued until after dark, but the Federals held. By the next morning, the combined Federal forces numbered about 40,000, outnumbering Beauregard’s army of less than 30,000. Beauregard was unaware of the arrival of Buell’s army and launched a counterattack in response to a two-mile advance by William Nelson’s division of Buell’s army at 6:00 am, which was, at first, successful.

Union troops stiffened and began forcing the Confederates back. Beauregard ordered a counterattack, which stopped the Union advance but did not break its battle line. At this point, Beauregard realized that he could not win and, having suffered too many casualties, he retired from the field and headed back to Corinth. On the 8th, Grant sent Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman, with two brigades, and Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood, with his division, in pursuit of Beauregard. They ran into the Rebel rearguard, commanded by Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest, at Fallen Timbers. Forrest’s aggressive tactics, although eventually contained, influenced the Union troops to return to Pittsburg Landing. Grant’s mastery of the Confederate forces continued; he had beaten them once again. The Confederates continued to fall back until launching their mid-August offensive.

Result(s): Union victory


Memphis

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Shelby County

Campaign: Joint Operations on the Middle Mississippi River (1862)

Date(s): June 6, 1862

Principal Commanders: Flag-Officer Charles H. Davis and Col. Charles Ellet [US]; Capt. James E. Montgomery and Brig. Gen. M. Jeff Thompson [CS]

Forces Engaged: U.S. Ironclads Benton, Louisville, Carondelet, Cairo, and St. Louis and U.S. Army Rams Queen of the West and Monarch [US]; C.S. Navy Rams General Beauregard, General Bragg, General Price, General Van Dorn, General Thompson, Colonel Lovell, Sumter, and Little Rebel [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 181 total (US 1; CS 180)

Description: After the Confederate River Defense Fleet, commanded by Capt. James E. Montgomery and Brig. Gen. M. Jeff Thompson (Missouri State Guard), bested the Union ironclads at Plum Run Bend, Tennessee, on May 10, 1862, they retired to Memphis. Confederate Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard ordered troops out of Fort Pillow and Memphis on June 4, after learning of Union Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck’s occupation of Corinth, Mississippi. Thompson’s few troops, camped outside Memphis, and Montgomery’s fleet were the only force available to meet the Union naval threat to the city.

From Island No. 45, just north of Memphis, Flag-Officer Charles H. Davis and Col. Charles Ellet launched a naval attack on Memphis after 4:00 am on June 6. Arriving off Memphis about 5:30 am, the battle began. In the hour and a half battle, the Union boats sank or captured all but one of the Confederate vessels; General Van Dorn escaped. Immediately following the battle, Col. Ellet’s son, Medical Cadet Charles Ellet, Jr., met the mayor of Memphis and raised the Union colors over the courthouse. Later, Flag-Officer Davis officially received the surrender of the city from the mayor. The Indiana Brigade, commanded by Col. G.N. Fitch, then occupied the city. Memphis, an important commercial and economic center on the Mississippi River, had fallen, opening another section of the Mississippi River to Union shipping.

Result(s): Union victory


Chattanooga

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Hamilton County and City of Chattanooga

Campaign: Confederate Heartland Offensive (1862)

Date(s): June 7-8, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. James Negley [US]; Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith [CS]

Forces Engaged: Division [US]; Department [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 88 total (US 23; CS 65)

Description: In late Spring 1862, the Confederacy split its forces in Tennessee into several small commands in an attempt to complicate Federal operations. The Union had to redistribute its forces to counter the Confederate command structure changes. Maj. Gen. Ormsby Mitchel received orders to go to Huntsville, Alabama, with his division to repair railroads in the area. Soon, he occupied more than 100 miles along the Nashville & Chattanooga and Memphis & Charleston railroads. In May, Mitchel and his men sparred with Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith’s men.

After Mitchel received command of all Federal troops between Nashville and Huntsville, on May 29, he ordered Brig. Gen. James Negley with a small division to lead an expedition to capture Chattanooga. This force arrived before Chattanooga on June 7. Negley ordered the 79th Pennsylvania Volunteers out to reconnoiter. It found the Confederates entrenched on the opposite side of the river along the banks and atop Cameron Hill. Negley brought up two artillery batteries to open fire on the Rebel troops and the town and sent infantry to the river bank to act as sharpshooters.

The Union bombardment of Chattanooga continued throughout the 7th and until noon on the 8th. The Confederates replied, but it was uncoordinated since the undisciplined gunners were allowed to do as they wished. On June 10, Smith, who had arrived on the 8th, reported that Negley had withdrawn and the Confederate loss was minor. This attack on Chattanooga was a warning that Union troops could mount assaults when they wanted.

Result(s): Union victory


Murfreesboro

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Rutherford County

Campaign: Confederate Heartland Offensive (1862)

Date(s): July 13, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Thomas T. Crittenden [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments from four Union units (approx. 900) [US]; equivalent of a brigade (about five cavalry units; approx. 1,400) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,040 total (US 890; CS 150)

Description: On June 10, 1862, Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell commanding the Army of the Ohio, started a leisurely advance toward Chattanooga, which Union Brig. Gen. James Negley and his force threatened on June 7-8. In response to the threat, the Confederate government sent Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest to Chattanooga to organize a cavalry brigade. By July, Confederate cavalry under the command of Forrest and Col. John Hunt Morgan were raiding into Middle Tennessee and Kentucky. Perhap, the most dramatic of these cavalry raids was Forrest’s capture of the Union Murfreesboro garrison on July 13, 1862.

Forrest left Chattanooga on July 9 with two cavalry regiments and joined other units on the way, bringing the total force to about 1,400 men. The major objective was to strike Murfreesboro, an important Union supply center on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, at dawn on July 13. The Murfreesboro garrison was camped in three locations around town and included detachments from four units comprising infantry, cavalry, and artillery, under the command of Brig. Gen. Thomas T. Crittenden who had just arrived on July 12. Between 4:15 and 4:30 am on the morning of July 13, Forrest’s cavalry surprised the Union pickets on the Woodbury Pike, east of Murfreesboro, and quickly overran a Federal hospital and the camp of the 9th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment detachment.

Additional Rebel troops attacked the camps of the other Union commands and the jail and courthouse. By late afternoon all of the Union units had surrendered to Forrest’s force. The Confederates destroyed much of the Union supplies and tore up railroad track in the area, but the main result of the raid was the diversion of Union forces from a drive on Chattanooga. This raid, along with Morgan’s raid into Kentucky, made possible Bragg’s concentration of forces at Chattanooga and his early September invasion of Kentucky.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Hatchie’s Bridge

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: Davis Bridge, Matamora

Location: Hardeman County and McNairy County

Campaign: Iuka and Corinth Operations (1862)

Date(s): October 5, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Edward O.C. Ord and Maj. Gen. Stephen A. Hurlbut [US]; Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachment [US]; Army of the West [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 900 total (US 500; CS 400)

Description: Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn’s Confederate Army of West Tennessee retreated from Corinth on October 4, 1862. Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans did not send forces in pursuit until the morning of the 5th. Maj. Gen. Edward O.C. Ord, commanding a detachment of the Army of West Tennessee, was, pursuant to orders, advancing on Corinth to assist Rosecrans. On the night of October 4-5, he camped near Pocahontas. Between 7:30 and 8:00 am the next morning, his force encountered Union Maj. Gen. Stephen A. Hurlbut’s 4th Brigade, Army of West Tennessee, in the Confederates’s front.

Ord took command of the now-combined Union forces and pushed Van Dorn’s advance, Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s Army of the West, back about five miles to the Hatchie River and across Davis’ Bridge. After accomplishing this, Ord was wounded and Hurlbut assumed command. While Price’s men were hotly engaged with Ord’s force, Van Dorn’s scouts looked for and found another crossing of the Hatchie River. Van Dorn then led his army back to Holly Springs. Ord had forced Price to retreat, but the Confederates escaped capture or destruction. Although they should have done so, Rosecrans’s army had failed to capture or destroy Van Dorn’s force.

Result(s): Union victory


Hartsville

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Trousdale County

Campaign: Stones River Campaign (1862-63)

Date(s): December 7, 1862

Principal Commanders: Col. Absalom B. Moore [US]; Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan [CS]

Forces Engaged: 39th Brigade, XIV Army Corps (Army of the Cumberland) [US]; expeditionary force (two brigades) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,004 total (US 1,855; CS 149)

Description: The 39th Brigade, XIV Army Corps, was guarding the Cumberland River crossing at Hartsville to prevent Confederate cavalry from raiding. Under the cover of darkness, Brig. Gen. John H. Morgan crossed the river in the early morning of December 7, 1862. Col. Absalom B. Moore, commander of the 39th Brigade, stated in his after action report, that Morgan’s advance had worn Union blue uniforms which got them through the videttes. Morgan approached the Union camp, the pickets sounded the alarm, and held the Rebels until the brigade was in battle line. The fighting commenced at 6:45 am and continued until about 8:30 am. One of Moore’s units ran, which caused confusion and helped to force the Federals to fall back. By 8:30 am, the Confederates had surrounded the Federals, convincing them to surrender. This action at Hartsville, located north of Murfreesboro, was a preliminary to the Confederate cavalry raids by Forrest into West Tennessee, December 1862, January 1863, and Morgan into Kentucky, December 1862, January 1863.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Jackson

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Madison County

Campaign: Forrest’s Expedition into West Tennessee (1862-63)

Date(s): December 19, 1862

Principal Commanders: Col. Adolph Englemann [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two regiments from the Jackson Garrison [US]; Detachment of Forrest’s Cavalry (approx. 400) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 6; CS unknown)

Description: The engagement at Jackson occurred during Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s Expedition into West Tennessee, between December 11, 1862, and January 1, 1863. Forrest wished to interrupt the rail supply line to Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s army, campaigning down the Mississippi Central Railroad. If he could destroy the Mobile & Ohio Railroad running south from Columbus, Kentucky, through Jackson, Grant would have to curtail or halt his operations. Forrest’s 2,100-man cavalry brigade crossed the Tennessee River on December 15-17, heading west. Maj. Gen.

Grant ordered a troop concentration at Jackson under Brig. Gen. Jeremiah C. Sullivan and sent a cavalry force out under Col. Robert G. Ingersoll, to confront Forrest. Forrest, however, smashed the Union cavalry at Lexington on December 18. As Forrest continued his advance the next day, Sullivan ordered Col. Adolph Englemann to take a small force northeast of Jackson. At Old Salem Cemetery, acting on the defensive, Englemann’s two infantry regiments repulsed a Confederate mounted attack and then withdrew a mile closer to town.

To Forrest, the fight amounted to no more than a feint and show of force intended to hold Jackson’s Union defenders in place while two mounted columns destroyed railroad track north and south of the town and returned. This accomplished, Forrest withdrew from the Jackson area to attack Trenton and Humboldt. Thus, although the Federals had checked a demonstration by a portion of Forrest’s force, a major accomplishment, other Confederates had fulfilled an element of the expedition’s mission.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Stones River

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: Murfreesboro

Location: Rutherford County

Campaign: Stones River Campaign (1862-63)

Date(s): December 31, 1862-January 2, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Cumberland [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 23,515 total (US 13,249; CS 10,266)

Description: After Gen. Braxton Bragg’s defeat at Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862, he and his Confederate Army of the Mississippi retreated, reorganized, and were redesignated as the Army of Tennessee. They then advanced to Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and prepared to go into winter quarters. Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans’s Union Army of the Cumberland followed Bragg from Kentucky to Nashville. Rosecrans left Nashville on December 26, with about 44,000 men, to defeat Bragg’s army of more than 37,000.

He found Bragg’s army on December 29 and went into camp that night, within hearing distance of the Rebels. At dawn on the 31st, Bragg’s men attacked the Union right flank. The Confederates had driven the Union line back to the Nashville Pike by 10:00 am but there it held. Union reinforcements arrived from Rosecrans’s left in the late forenoon to bolster the stand, and before fighting stopped that day the Federals had established a new, strong line. On New Years Day, both armies marked time. Bragg surmised that Rosecrans would now withdraw, but the next morning he was still in position.

In late afternoon, Bragg hurled a division at a Union division that, on January 1, had crossed Stones River and had taken up a strong position on the bluff east of the river. The Confederates drove most of the Federals back across McFadden’s Ford, but with the assistance of artillery, the Federals repulsed the attack, compelling the Rebels to retire to their original position. Bragg left the field on the January 4-5, retreating to Shelbyville and Tullahoma, Tennessee. Rosecrans did not pursue, but as the Confederates retired, he claimed the victory. Stones River boosted Union morale. The Confederates had been thrown back in the east, west, and in the Trans-Mississippi.

Result(s): Union victory


Parker’s Cross Roads

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Henderson County

Campaign: Forrest’s Expedition into West Tennessee (1862-63)

Date(s): December 31, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Jeremiah C. Sullivan [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two brigades (approx. 3,000 men) [US]; expeditionary brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 737 total (US 237; CS 500)

Description: As Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s expedition into West Tennessee neared its conclusion, Union Brig. Gen. Jeremiah C. Sullivan, with the brigades of Col. Cyrus L. Dunham and Col. John W. Fuller, attempted to cut Forrest off from withdrawing across the Tennessee River. Dunham’s and Forrest’s march routes, on December 31, 1862, brought them into contact at Parker’s Cross Roads. Skirmishing began about 9:00 am, with Forrest taking an initial position along a wooded ridge northwest of Dunham at the intersection.

Confederate artillery gained an early advantage. Dunham pulled his brigade back a half mile and redeployed, facing north. His Federals repelled frontal feints until attacked on both flanks and rear by Forrest’s mounted and dismounted troops. During a lull, Forrest sent Dunham a demand for an unconditional surrender. Dunham refused and was preparing for Forrest’s next onset when Fuller’s Union brigade arrived from the north and surprised the Confederates with an attack on their rear; Confederate security detachments had failed to warn of Fuller’s approach.

Charge em both ways, ordered Forrest. The Confederates briefly reversed front, repelled Fuller, then rushed past Dunham’s demoralized force and withdrew south to Lexington and then across the Tennessee River. Both sides claimed victory, but the Confederate claims appear to have more credence.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Dover

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: Fort Donelson

Location: Stewart County

Campaign: Middle Tennessee Operations (1863)

Date(s): February 3, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. A.C. Harding [US]; Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments of two regiments: 83rd Illinois Infantry and 5th Iowa Cavalry Regiments and some artillery (approx. 800) [US]; cavalry division (approx. 2,500) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 796 total (US 126; CS 670)

Description: Under orders, in late January 1863, Confederate Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, commanding two brigades of cavalry, had taken position on the Cumberland River at Palmyra to disrupt Union shipping. The Federals, however, apprised of Wheeler’s intent, refrained from sending any boats up or downriver. Unable to disrupt Union shipping and realizing that he and his men could not remain in the area indefinitely, Wheeler decided to attack the garrison at Dover, Tennessee, which informers reported was small and could easily be overwhelmed.

The Rebels set out for Dover and between 1:00 and 2:00 pm, on February 3, began an attack. The 800-man garrison, under the command of Col. A.C. Harding, was in and about the town of Dover where they had chosen camps that commanded the area and had dug rifle pits and battery emplacements. The Confederates mounted a determined attack using artillery fire with great skill, but were repulsed with heavy losses. By dusk, both sides were mostly without ammunition. The Confederates surveyed the Union defenses and decided that the enemy was too well-placed to allow capture. Wheeler’s force retired.

The Federals did send out a pursuit but to no avail. The Confederates had failed to disrupt shipping on the Cumberland River and capture the garrison at Dover. This Confederate failure left the Union in control in Middle Tennessee and a bitter Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest denounced Wheeler, a favorite of Gen. Braxton Bragg, saying he would not again serve under him.

Result(s): Union victory


Thompson’s Station

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Williamson County

Campaign: Middle Tennessee Operations (1863)

Date(s): March 5, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. John Coburn [US]; Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn [CS]

Forces Engaged: Infantry brigade [US]; I Cavalry Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,206 total (US 1,906; CS 300)

Description: In a period of relative inactivity following the Battle of Stones River, a reinforced Union infantry brigade, under Col. John Coburn, left Franklin to reconnoiter south toward Columbia. Four miles from Spring Hill, Coburn attacked with his right wing, a Confederate force composed of two regiments; he was repelled. Then, Maj. Gen. Van Dorn seized the initiative. Brig. Gen. W.H. Red Jackson’s dismounted 2nd Division made a frontal attack, while Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s division swept around Coburn’s left flank, and into his rear. After three attempts, characterized by hard fighting, Jackson carried the Union hilltop position as Forrest captured Coburn’s wagon train and blocked the road to Columbia in his rear. Out of ammunition and surrounded, Coburn surrendered. Union influence in Middle Tennessee subsided for a while.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Vaught’s Hill

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: Milton

Location: Rutherford County

Campaign: Middle Tennessee Operations (1863)

Date(s): March 20, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. Albert S. Hall [US]; Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Brigade, 5th Division, XIV Army Corps (a combined force of infantry, artillery, and cavalry comprising detachments from six units; approx. 1,300) [US]; Morgan’s Cavalry Division (approx. 3,500) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 435 total (US 62; CS 373)

Description: During the inactivity following the Battle of Stones River, a Union brigade-sized reconnaissance force, under Col. Albert S. Hall, left Murfreesboro on March 18. Circling to the northeast, Hall encountered Confederate Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan’s cavalry command which caused him to fall back to a position east of Milton. Pursuing Hall, Morgan’s men caught up with him on the morning of the 20th, at Vaught’s Hill. Dismounted, Morgan struck at both Union flanks, even to the point of encircling Hall’s hilltop position. Hall conducted a perimeter defense and withstood all Confederate attacks, which lasted till after 2:00 pm. Morgan continued to bombard the Yankees until 4:30 pm, when he broke off the engagement, after learning that Union reinforcements were en route from Murfreesboro. Union forces continued to strengthen their position in Middle Tennessee.

Result(s): Union victory


Brentwood

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Williamson County

Campaign: Middle Tennessee Operations (1863)

Date(s): March 25, 1863

Principal Commanders: Lt. Col. Edward Bloodgood [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments of the 22nd Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, 33rd Indiana, and 19th Michigan Volunteer Infantry regiments, 1st Division, 1st Cavalry Corps (approx. 400) [US]; Forrest’s Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 311 total (US 305; CS 6)

Description: Union Lt. Col. Edward Bloodgood held Brentwood, a station on the Nashville & Decatur Railroad, with 400 men on the morning of March 25, 1863, when Confederate Brig. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest, with a powerful column, approached the town. The day before, Forrest had ordered Col. J.W. Starnes, commanding the 2nd Brigade, to go to Brentwood, cut the telegraph, tear up railroad track, attack the stockade, and cut off any retreat. Forrest and the other cavalry brigade joined Bloodgood about 7:00 am on the 25th.

A messenger from the stockade informed Bloodgood that Forrest’s men were about to attack and had destroyed railroad track. Bloodgood sought to notify his superiors and discovered that the telegraph lines were cut. Forrest sent in a demand for a surrender under a flag of truce but Bloodgood refused. Within a half hour, though, Forrest had artillery in place to shell Bloodgood’s position and had surrounded the Federals with a large force. Bloodgood decided to surrender. Forrest and his men caused a lot of damage in the area during this expedition, and Brentwood, on the railroad, was a significant loss to the Federals.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Franklin

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Williamson County

Campaign: Middle Tennessee Operations (1863)

Date(s): April 10, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger [US]; Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of Kentucky [US]; 1st Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 237 total (US 100; CS 137)

Description: The 1863 engagement at Franklin was a reconnaissance in force by Confederate cavalry leader Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn coupled with an equally inept response by Union Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger. Van Dorn advanced northward from Spring Hill on May 10, making contact with Federal skirmishers just outside Franklin. Van Dorn’s attack was so weak that when Granger received a false report that Brentwood, to the north, was under attack, he believed it, and sent away most of his cavalry, thinking that the Confederate general was undertaking a diversion.

When the truth became known there was no threat to Brentwood Granger decided to attack Van Dorn, but he was surprised to learn that a subordinate had already done so, without orders. Brig. Gen. David S. Stanley, with a cavalry brigade, had crossed the Harpeth River at Hughes’s Ford, behind the Confederate right rear. The 4th U.S. Cavalry attacked and captured Freeman’s Tennessee Battery on the Lewisburg Road but lost it when Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest counterattacked. Stanley’s troopers quickly withdrew across the Big Harpeth River. This incident in his rear caused Van Dorn to cancel his operations and withdraw to Spring Hill, leaving the Federals in control of the area.

Result(s): Union victory


Hoover’s Gap

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Bedford County and Rutherford County

Campaign: Tullahoma Campaign (1863)

Date(s): June 24-26, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Maj. Gen. Alexander P. Stewart [CS]

Forces Engaged: XIV Army Corps [US]; Bate’s and Johnson’s Brigades, Stewart’s Division, Hardee’s Corps, Army of Tennessee, and J.R. Butler’s 1st [3rd] Kentucky Cavalry Regiment [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Following the Battle of Stones River, Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, commanding the Army of the Cumberland, remained in the Murfreesboro area for five and one-half months. To counter the Yankees, Gen. Braxton Bragg, commander of the Army of Tennessee, established a fortified line along the Duck River from Shelbyville to Wartrace. On the Confederate right, infantry and artillery detachments guarded Liberty, Hoover’s, and Bellbuckle gaps through the mountains. Rosecrans’s superiors, fearing that Bragg might detach large numbers of men to help break the Siege of Vicksburg, urged him to attack the Confederates. On June 23, 1863, he feigned an attack on Shelbyville but massed against Bragg’s right. His troops struck out toward the gaps, Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas’s men, on the 24th, forced Hoover’s Gap.

The Confederate 3rd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, under Col. J.R. Butler, held Hoover’s Gap, but the Yankees easily pushed it aside. As this unit fell back, it ran into Brig. Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson’s and Brig. Gen. William B. Bate’s Brigades, Stewart’s Division, Hardee’s Corps, Army of Tennessee, which marched off to meet Thomas and his men. Fighting continued at the gap until just before noon on the 26th, when Maj. Gen. Alexander P. Stewart, the Confederate division commander, sent a message to Johnson and Bate stating that he was pulling back and they should also. Although slowed by rain, Rosecrans moved on, forcing Bragg to give up his defensive line and fall back to Tullahoma. Rosecrans sent a flying column (Wilder’s Lightning Brigade, the same that had spearheaded the thrust through Hoover’s Gap on the 24th) ahead to hit the railroad in Bragg’s rear. Arriving too late to destroy the Elk River railroad bridge, the Federals tore up lots of track around Decherd. Bragg evacuated Middle Tennessee.

Result(s): Union victory


Chattanooga

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Hamilton County and City of Chattanooga

Campaign: Chickamauga Campaign (1863)

Date(s): August 21, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. John T. Wilder [US]; D.H. Hill [CS]

Forces Engaged: Wilder’s Brigade [US]; Hill’s Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: On August 16, 1863, Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, commander of the Army of the Cumberland, launched a campaign to take Chattanooga. Col. John T. Wilder’s brigade of the Union 4th Division, XIV Army Corps marched to a location northeast of Chattanooga where the Confederates could see them, reinforcing Gen. Braxton Bragg’s expectations of a Union attack on the town from that direction. On August 21, Wilder reached the Tennessee River opposite Chattanooga and ordered the 18th Indiana Light Artillery to begin shelling the town.

The shells caught many soldiers and civilians in town in church observing a day of prayer and fasting. The bombardment sank two steamers docked at the landing and created a great deal of consternation amongst the Confederates. Continued periodically over the next two weeks, the shelling helped keep Bragg’s attention to the northeast while the bulk of Rosecrans’s army crossed the Tennessee River well west and south of Chattanooga. When Bragg learned on September 8 that the Union army was in force southwest of the city, he abandoned Chattanooga.

Result(s): Successful Union demonstration


Blountsville

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Sullivan County

Campaign: East Tennessee Campaign (1863)

Date(s): September 22, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. John W. Foster [US]; Col. James E. Carter [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XXIII Army Corps, Department of the Ohio [US]; 1st Tennessee Cavalry Regiment and Artillery (approx. 1,200) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 192 total (US 27; CS 165)

Description: Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, commander of the Department of the Ohio, undertook an expedition into East Tennessee to clear the roads and gaps to Virginia, and, if possible, secure the saltworks beyond Abingdon. On September 22, Union Col. John W. Foster with his cavalry and artillery engaged Col. James E. Carter and his troops at Blountsville. Foster attacked at noon and in the four-hour battle, shelled the town and initiated a flanking movement, compelling the Confederates to withdraw. Blountsville was the initial step in the Union’s attempt to force Confederate Maj. Gen. Sam Jones and his command to retire from East Tennessee.

Result(s): Union victory


Blue Springs

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Greene County

Campaign: East Tennessee Campaign (1863)

Date(s): October 10, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Williams [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of the Ohio [US]; 1st Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, 4th Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, and some home guard troops and artillery [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 316 total (US 100; CS 216)

Description: Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, commander of the Department of the Ohio, undertook an expedition into East Tennessee to clear the roads and passes to Virginia, and, if possible, secure the saltworks beyond Abingdon. In October, Confederate Brig. Gen. John S. Williams, with his cavalry force, set out to disrupt Union communications and logistics. He wished to take Bull’s Gap on the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad. On October 3, while advancing on Bull’s Gap, he fought with Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Carter’s Union Cavalry Division, XXIII Army Corps, at Blue Springs, about nine miles from Bull’s Gap, on the railroad.

Carter, not knowing how many of the enemy he faced, withdrew. Carter and Williams skirmished for the next few days. On October 10, Carter approached Blue Springs in force. Williams had received some reinforcements. The battle began about 10:00 am with Union cavalry engaging the Confederates until afternoon while another mounted force attempted to place itself in a position to cut off a Rebel retreat. Captain Orlando M. Poe, the Chief Engineer, performed a reconnaissance to identify the best location for making an infantry attack. At 3:30 pm, Brig. Gen. Edward Ferrero’s 1st Division, IX Army Corps, moved up to attack, which he did at 5:00 pm.

Ferrero’s men broke into the Confederate line, causing heavy casualties, and advanced almost to the enemy’s rear before being checked. After dark, the Confederates withdrew and the Federals took up the pursuit in the morning. Within days, Williams and his men had retired to Virginia. Burnside had launched the East Tennessee Campaign to reduce or extinguish Confederate influence in the area; Blue Springs helped fulfill that mission.

Result(s): Union victory


Wauhatchie

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: Brown’s Ferry

Location: Hamilton County, Marion County, and Dade County

Campaign: Reopening of the Tennessee River (1863)

Date(s): October 28-29, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US]; Brig. Gen. Micah Jenkins [CS]

Forces Engaged: XI Army Corps and 2nd Division, XII Army Corps [US]; Hood’s Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 828 total (US 420; CS 408)

Description: In an effort to relieve Union forces besieged in Chattanooga, Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas and Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant initiated the Cracker Line Operation on October 26, 1863. This operation required the opening of the road to Chattanooga from Brown’s Ferry on the Tennessee River with a simultaneous advance up Lookout Valley, securing the Kelley’s Ferry Road. Union Chief Engineer, Military Division of the Mississippi, Brig. Gen. William F. Baldy Smith, with Brig. Gen. John B. Turchin’s and Brig. Gen. William B. Hazen’s 1st and 2nd brigades, 3rd Division, IV Army Corps, was assigned the task of establishing the Brown’s Ferry bridgehead. Meanwhile, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, with three divisions, marched from Bridgeport through Lookout Valley towards Brown’s Ferry from the south.

At 3:00 am, on October 27, portions of Hazen’s brigade embarked upon pontoons and floated around Moccasin Bend to Brown’s Ferry. Turchin’s brigade took a position on Moccasin Bend across from Brown’s Ferry. Upon landing, Hazen secured the bridgehead and then positioned a pontoon bridge across the river, allowing Turchin to cross and take position on his right. Hooker, while his force passed through Lookout Valley on October 28, detached Brig. Gen. John W. Geary’s division at Wauhatchie Station, a stop on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, to protect the line of communications to the south as well as the road west to Kelley’s Ferry. Observing the Union movements on the 27th and 28th, Confederate Lt. Gen. James Longstreet and Gen. Braxton Bragg decided to mount a night attack on Wauhatchie Station.

Although the attack was scheduled for 10:00 pm on the night of October 28, confusion delayed it till midnight. Surprised by the attack, Geary’s division, at Wauhatchie Station, formed into a V-shaped battle line. Hearing the din of battle, Hooker, at Brown’s Ferry, sent Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard with two XI Army Corps divisions to Wauhatchie Station as reinforcements. As more and more Union troops arrived, the Confederates fell back to Lookout Mountain. The Federals now had their window to the outside and could receive supplies, weapons, ammunition, and reinforcements via the Cracker Line. Relatively few night engagements occurred during the Civil War; Wauhatchie is one of the most significant.

Result(s): Union victory


Collierville

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Shelby County

Campaign: Operations on the Memphis & Charleston Railroad (1863)

Date(s): November 3, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. Edward Hatch [US]; Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3rd Cavalry Brigade (850) [US]; cavalry division (2,500) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 155 total (US 60; CS 95)

Description: Four minor battles occurred in 1863 at Collierville, Tennessee, during a three-month period. The November 3 fight was intended to be a Confederate cavalry raid to break up the Memphis & Charleston Railroad behind Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s XV Army Corps, then in the process of marching to the relief of Chattanooga. But, when Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers, leading a cavalry division riding up from Mississippi, learned that only two Union regiments defended Collierville, he decided to attack. Union Col. Edward Hatch possessed more men than Chalmers supposed, stationed at Collierville and at Germantown, five miles to the west. Scouts warned Hatch of Chalmers’s approach from the south, so he ordered Collierville’s defenders to be prepared and rode from Germantown with cavalry reinforcements. Chalmers, as he had done only three weeks earlier, attacked from the south. Col. Hatch arrived with help. Surprised by the unexpected appearance of the enemy on his flanks, Chalmers concluded that he was outnumbered, called off the battle, and, to ward off Union pursuit, withdrew back to Mississippi. The Memphis & Charleston Railroad remained open to Tuscumbia, Alabama, for Union troop movements.

Result(s): Union victory


Campbell’s Station

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Knox County

Campaign: Knoxville Campaign (1863)

Date(s): November 16, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of the Ohio [US]; Confederate Forces in East Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 970 total (US 400; CS 570)

Description: In early November 1863, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, with two divisions and about 5,000 cavalry, was detached from the Confederate Army of Tennessee near Chattanooga to attack Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s Union Department of the Ohio troops at Knoxville, Tennessee. Following parallel routes, Longstreet and Burnside raced for Campbell’s Station, a hamlet where the Concord Road, from the south, intersected the Kingston Road to Knoxville. Burnside hoped to reach the crossroads first and continue on to safety in Knoxville; Longstreet planned to reach the crossroads and hold it, which would prevent Burnside from gaining Knoxville and force him to fight outside his earthworks.

By forced marching, on a rainy November 16, Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s advance reached the vital intersection and deployed first. The main column arrived at noon with the baggage train just behind. Scarcely 15 minutes later, Longstreet’s Confederates approached. Longstreet attempted a double envelopment: attacks timed to strike both Union flanks simultaneously. Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaw’s Confederate division struck with such force that the Union right had to redeploy, but held. Brig. Gen. Micah Jenkins’s Confederate division maneuvered ineffectively as it advanced and was unable to turn the Union left. Burnside ordered his two divisions astride the Kingston Road to withdraw three-quarters of a mile to a ridge in their rear. This was accomplished without confusion. The Confederates suspended their attack while Burnside continued his retrograde movement to Knoxville. Had Longstreet reached Campbell’s Station first, the Knoxville Campaign’s results might have been different.

Result(s): Union victory


Chattanooga

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Hamilton County and City of Chattanooga

Campaign: Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign (1863)

Date(s): November 23-25, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 12,485 total (US 5,815; CS 6,670)

Description: From the last days of September through October 1863, Gen. Braxton Bragg’s army laid siege to the Union army under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans at Chattanooga, cutting off its supplies. On October 17, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant received command of the Western armies; he moved to reinforce Chattanooga and replaced Rosecrans with Maj. Gen. George Thomas. A new supply line was soon established. Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman arrived with his four divisions in mid-November, and the Federals began offensive operations. On November 23-24, Union forces struck out and captured Orchard Knob and Lookout Mountain. On November 25, Union soldiers assaulted and carried the seemingly impregnable Confederate position on Missionary Ridge. One of the Confederacy’s two major armies was routed. The Federals held Chattanooga, the Gateway to the Lower South, which became the supply and logistics base for Sherman’s 1864 Atlanta Campaign.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Sanders

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: Fort Loudon

Location: Knox County

Campaign: Knoxville Campaign (1863)

Date(s): November 29, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of the Ohio [US]; Confederate Forces in East Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 880 total (US 100; CS 780)

Description: In attempting to take Knoxville, the Confederates decided that Fort Sanders was the only vulnerable place where they could penetrate Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s fortifications, which enclosed the city, and successfully conclude the siege, already a week long. The fort surmounted an eminence just northwest of Knoxville. Northwest of the fort, the land dropped off abruptly. Confederate Lt. Gen. James Longstreet believed he could assemble a storming party, undetected at night, below the fortifications and, before dawn, overwhelm Fort Sanders by a coup de main. Following a brief artillery barrage directed at the fort’s interior, three Rebel brigades charged. Union wire entanglements-telegraph wire stretched from one tree stump to another to another-delayed the attack, but the fort’s outer ditch halted the Confederates.

This ditch was twelve feet wide and from four to ten feet deep with vertical sides. The fort’s exterior slope was almost vertical, also. Crossing the ditch was nearly impossible, especially under withering defensive fire from musketry and canister. Confederate officers did lead their men into the ditch, but, without scaling ladders, few emerged on the scarp side and a small number entered the fort to be wounded, killed, or captured. The attack lasted a short twenty minutes. Longstreet undertook his Knoxville expedition to divert Union troops from Chattanooga and to get away from Gen. Braxton Bragg, with whom he was engaged in a bitter feud. His failure to take Knoxville scuttled his purpose. This was the decisive battle of the Knoxville Campaign. This Confederate defeat, plus the loss of Chattanooga on November 25, put much of East Tennessee in the Union camp.

Result(s): Union victory


Bean’s Station

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Grainger County

Campaign: Knoxville Campaign (1863)

Date(s): December 14, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. J.M. Shackelford [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Cavalry Corps, Department of the Ohio [US]; Confederate Forces in East Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,600 total (US 700; CS 900)

Description: Lt. Gen. James Longstreet abandoned the Siege of Knoxville, on December 4, 1863, and retreated northeast towards Rogersville, Tennessee. Union Maj. Gen. John G. Parke pursued the Confederates but not too closely. Longstreet continued to Rutledge on December 6 and Rogersville on the 9th. Parke sent Brig. Gen. J.M Shackelford on with about 4,000 cavalry and infantry to search for Longstreet. On the 13th, Shackelford was near Bean’s Station on the Holston River. Longstreet decided to go back and capture Bean’s Station.

Three Confederate columns and artillery approached Bean’s Station to catch the federals in a vice. By 2:00 am on the 14th, one column was skirmishing with Union pickets. The pickets held out as best they could and warned Shackelford of the Confederate presence. He deployed his force for an assault. Soon, the battle started and continued throughout most of the day. Confederate flanking attacks and other assaults occurred at various times and locations, but the Federals held until southern reinforcements tipped the scales. By nightfall, the Federals were retiring from Bean’s Station through Bean’s Gap and on to Blain’s Cross Roads.

Longstreet set out to attack the Union forces again the next morning, but as he approached them at Blain’s Cross Roads, he found them well-entrenched. Longstreet withdrew and the Federals soon left the area. The Knoxville Campaign ended following the battle of Bean’s Station. Longstreet soon went into winter quarters at Russellville. Their success meant little to Confederate efforts except to prevent disaster.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Mossy Creek

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Jefferson County

Campaign: Operations about Dandridge, Tennessee (1863-64)

Date(s): December 29, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis [US]; Maj. Gen. William T. Martin [CS]

Forces Engaged: Cavalry Corps, Army of the Ohio and 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Army Corps [US]; Longstreet’s Cavalry, Department of East Tennessee (Sturgis reported that the Confederate cavalry was supported by a brigade of infantry; approx. 2,000 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 151; CS unknown)

Description: Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis received a report on the night of December 28, 1863, that a brigade of enemy cavalry was in the neighborhood of Dandridge that afternoon. Surmising that the Rebel cavalry force was split, Sturgis decided to meet and defeat, and possibly capture, this portion of it. He ordered most of his troopers out toward Dandridge on two roads. After these troops had left, Maj. Gen. William T. Martin, commander of Longstreet’s Confederate cavalry, now reunited, attacked the remainder of Sturgis’s force at Mossy Creek, Tennessee, which included the First Brigade, Second Division, XXIII Army Corps, commanded by Col. Samuel R. Mott, at 9:00 am. First, Sturgis sent messages to his subordinates on the way to Dandridge to return promptly if they found no enemy there. The Confederates advanced, driving the Federals in front of them. Some of the Union troopers who had set out for Dandridge returned. Around 3:00 pm, fortunes changed as the Federals began driving the Confederates. By dark, the Rebels were back to the location from which they had begun the battle. Union pursuit was not mounted that night, but Martin retreated from the area. After the victory at Mossy Creek, the Union held the line about Talbott’s Station for some time.

Result(s): Union victory


Dandridge

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Jefferson County

Campaign: Operations about Dandridge, Tennessee (1863-64)

Date(s): January 17, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Cavalry Corps, Army of the Ohio, and Infantry of the IV Army Corps [US]; Department of East Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 150; CS unknown)

Description: Union forces under Maj. Gen. John G. Parke advanced on Dandridge, Tennessee, near the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad, on January 14, forcing Lt. Gen. James Longstreet’s Confederate troops to fall back. Longstreet, however, moved additional troops into the area on the 15th to meet the enemy and threaten the Union base at New Market. On the 16th, Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis, commanding the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Ohio, rode forward to occupy Kimbrough’s Crossroads. As the Union cavalry neared the crossroads, they discovered an enemy infantry division with artillery that had arrived the day before.

The Union cavalry could not dislodge these Rebels and was compelled to retire to Dandridge. About noon the next day, Sturgis received information that the Confederates were preparing for an attack so he formed his men into line of battle. About 4:00 pm, the Confederates advanced and the fighting quickly became general. The battle continued until after dark with the Federals occupying about the same battle line as when the fighting started. The Union forces fell back to New Market and Strawberry Plains during the night, but the Rebels were unable to pursue because of the lack of cannons, ammunition, and shoes. For the time being, the Union forces left the area. The Confederates had failed to destroy or capture the Federals as they should have.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Fair Garden

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Sevier County

Campaign: Operations about Dandridge, Tennessee (1863-64)

Date(s): January 27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis and Col. Edward M. McCook [US]; Maj. Gen. William T. Martin [CS]

Forces Engaged: Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Ohio [US]; Cavalry Division, Department of East Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 265 total (US 100; CS 165)

Description: Since the Battle of Dandridge, the Union cavalry had moved to the south side of the French Broad River and had disrupted Confederate foraging and captured numerous wagons in that area. On January 25, 1864, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, commander of the Department of East Tennessee, instructed his subordinates to do something to curtail Union operations south of the French Broad. On the 26th, Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis, having had various brushes with Confederate cavalry, deployed his troopers to watch the area fords.

Two Confederate cavalry brigades and artillery advanced from Fair Garden in the afternoon but were checked about four miles from Sevierville. Other Confederates attacked a Union cavalry brigade, though, at Fowler’s on Flat Creek, and drove it about two miles. No further fighting occurred that day. Union scouts observed that the Confederates had concentrated on the Fair Garden Road, so Sturgis ordered an attack there in the morning. In a heavy fog, Col. Edward M. McCook’s Union division attacked and drove back Maj. Gen. William T. Martin’s Confederates until about 4:00 pm. At that time, McCook’s men charged with sabers and routed the Rebels. Sturgis set out in pursuit on the 28th, and captured and killed more of the routed Rebels.

The Union forces, however, observed three of Longstreet’s infantry brigades crossing the river. Realizing his weariness from fighting, lack of supplies, ammunition, and weapons and the overwhelming strength of the enemy, Sturgis decided to evacuate the area. But, before leaving, Sturgis determined to attack Brig. Gen. Frank C. Armstrong’s Confederate cavalry division which he had learned was about three or four miles away, on the river. Unbeknownst to the attacking Federals, Armstrong had strongly fortified his position and three infantry regiments had arrived to reinforce him. Thus, the Union troops suffered severe casualties in the attack. The battle continued until dark, when the Federals retired from the area. The Federals had won the big battle but the fatigue of continual fighting and lack of supplies and ammunition forced them to withdraw.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Pillow

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Lauderdale County

Campaign: Forrest’s Expedition into West Tennessee and Kentucky (1864)

Date(s): April 12, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Lionel F. Booth and Maj. William F. Bradford [US]; Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments from three units (approx. 600) [US]; Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers’s 1st Division, Forrest’s Cavalry Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 654 total (US 574; CS 80)

Description: In April 1864, the Union garrison at Fort Pillow, a Confederate-built earthen fortification and a Union-built inner redoubt, overlooking the Mississippi River about forty river miles above Memphis, comprised 295 white Tennessee troops and 262 U.S. Colored Troops, all under the command of Maj. Lionel F. Booth. Confederate Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest attacked the fort on April 12 with a cavalry division of approximately 2,500 men. Forrest seized the older outworks, with high knolls commanding the Union position, to surround Booth’s force. Rugged terrain prevented the gunboat New Era from providing effective fire support for the Federals.

The garrison was unable to depress its artillery enough to cover the approaches to the fort Rebel sharpshooters, on the surrounding knolls, began firing into the fort killing Booth. Maj. William F. Bradford then took over command of the garrison. The Confederates launched a determined attack at 11:00 am, occupying more strategic locations around the fort, and Forrest demanded unconditional surrender. Bradford asked for an hour for consultation, and Forrest granted twenty minutes. Bradford refused surrender and the Confederates renewed the attack, soon overran the fort, and drove the Federals down the river’s bluff into a deadly crossfire. Casualties were high and only sixty-two of the U.S. Colored Troops survived the fight. Many accused the Confederates of perpetrating a massacre of the black troops, and that controversy continues today. The Confederates evacuated Fort Pillow that evening so they gained little from the attack except a temporary disruption of Union operations. The Fort Pillow Massacre became a Union rallying cry and cemented resolve to see the war through to its conclusion.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Memphis

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Shelby County

Campaign: Forrest’s Defense of Mississippi (1864)

Date(s): August 21, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. C.C. Washburn [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Troops stationed at Memphis [US]; Forrest’s Cavalry (approx. 400) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 94 total (US 160; CS 34)

Description: At 4:00 am on the morning of August 21, 1864, Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest made a daring raid on Union-held Memphis, Tennessee, but it was not an attempt to capture the city, occupied by 6,000 Federal troops. The raid had three objectives: to capture three Union generals posted there; to release Southern prisoners from Irving Block Prison; and to cause the recall of Union forces from Northern Mississippi. Striking northwestward for Memphis with 2,000 cavalry, Forrest lost about a quarter of his strength because of exhausted horses.

Surprise was essential. Taking advantage of a thick dawn fog and claiming to be a Union patrol returning with prisoners, the Confederates eliminated the sentries. Galloping through the streets and exchanging shots with other Union troops, the raiders split to pursue separate missions. One Union general was not at his quarters and another escaped to Fort Pickering dressed in his night-shirt. The attack on Irving Block Prison also failed when Union troops stalled the main body at the State Female College. After two hours, Forrest decided to withdraw, cutting telegraph wires, taking 500 prisoners and large quantities of supplies, including many horses. Although Forrest failed in Memphis, his raid influenced Union forces to return there, from northern Mississippi, and provide protection.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Johnsonville

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Benton County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): November 4-5, 1864

Principal Commanders: Col. C.R. Thompson and Lt. Cdr. Edward M. King [US]; Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Supply depot garrison (approx. 4,000) [US]; Forrest’s Cavalry [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: In an effort to check the Union army’s advance through Georgia, Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest led a 23-day raid culminating in an attack on the Yankee supply base at Johnsonville, Tennessee. Swinging north from Corinth, Mississippi, toward the Kentucky border and temporarily blockading the Tennessee River at Fort Herman, Forrest then moved southward along the Tennessee River’s west bank, capturing several U.S. steamers and a gunboat which he later had to abandon. On November 4, Forrest began positioning his artillery across the river from the Federal supply base and landing at Johnsonville. The Union discovered the Confederates finishing their entrenchments and battery emplacements in the afternoon of the 4th.

The Union gunboats and land batteries, across the river, engaged the Confederates in an artillery duel. The Rebel guns, however, were so well-positioned, the Federals were unable to hinder them. In fact, Confederate artillery fire disabled the gunboats. Fearing that the Rebels might cross the river and capture the transports, the Federals set fire to them. The wind then extended the fire to the piles of stores on the levee and to a warehouse loaded with supplies. Seeing the fire, the Confederates began firing on the steamboats, barges, and warehouses to prevent the Federals from putting out the fire. An inferno illuminated Forrest’s night withdrawal, and he escaped Union clutches without serious loss. Damages totaled $2.2 million. The next morning, on the 5th, some Confederate artillery bombarded the depot in the morning but then left. Although this brilliant victory further strengthened Forrest’s reputation and destroyed a great amount of Union materiel, it failed to stem the tide of Union success in Georgia. By this time, Forrest often harassed the Union Army, but, as this engagement demonstrated, he could not stop their operations.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Bull’s Gap

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Hamblen County and Greene County

Campaign: Breckinridge’s Advance into East Tennessee (1864)

Date(s): November 11-13, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem [US]; Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge [CS]

Forces Engaged: Governor’s Guard Brigade, State of Tennessee [US]; Department of Western Virginia and East Tennessee (approx. 2,400) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 241; CS unknown)

Description: In November 1864, Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge undertook an expedition into East Tennessee, anticipating that Confederate sympathizers would join his force and help drive the Yankees from the area. The Federals initially retired in front of this force and, on November 10, were at Bull’s Gap on the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad. The Confederates attacked them on the morning of the 11th but were repulsed by 11:00 am. Artillery fire continued throughout the day. The next morning, both sides attacked; the Confederates sought to hit the Union forces in a variety of locations but they gained little.

The next day firing occurred throughout most of the day, but the Confederates did not assault the Union lines because they were marching to flank them on the right. Before making the flank attack, the Union forces, short on everything from ammunition to rations, withdrew from Bull’s Gap after midnight on the 4th. Breckinridge pursued, but the Federals received reinforcements and foul weather played havoc with the roads and streams. Breckinridge, with most of his force, retired back to Virginia. This victory was a temporary Union setback in the Federal plans to rid East Tennessee of Confederate influence.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Columbia

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Maury County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): November 24 [24-29], 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield [US]; Gen. John Bell Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: XXIII Army Corps and elements of IV Army Corps [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description:Conflict near Columbia, during Hood’s 1864 Tennessee invasion, constituted a Confederate diversion as part of a maneuver designed to cross the Duck River upstream and interdict the Union army’s line of communications with Nashville. As Gen. John Bell Hood’s army advanced northeastward from Florence, Alabama, Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield’s force quickly withdrew from Pulaski to Columbia, arriving on November 24, just ahead of Forrest’s Rebel cavalry. The Federals built two lines of earthworks south of the town while skirmishing with enemy cavalry on November 24 and 25. Hood advanced his infantry on the following day but did not assault. He made demonstrations along the front while marching two corps of his army to Davis Ford, some five miles eastward on the Duck River. Schofield correctly interpreted Hood’s moves, but foul weather prevented him from crossing to the north bank before November 28, leaving Columbia to the Confederates. The next day, both armies marched north for Spring Hill. Schofield had slowed Hood’s movement but had not stopped him.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Spring Hill

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Maury County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): November 29, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield [US]; Gen. John Bell Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: IV and XXIII Army Corps [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Spring Hill was the prelude to the Battle of Franklin. On the night of November 28, 1864, Gen. John Bell Hood’s Army of Tennessee marched toward Spring Hill to get astride Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield’s Union army’s life line. Cavalry skirmishing between Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson’s Union cavalry and Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s Confederate troopers continued throughout the day as the Confederates advanced. On November 29, Hood’s infantry crossed Duck River and converged on Spring Hill. In the meantime, Maj. Gen. Schofield reinforced the troops holding the crossroads at Spring Hill. In late afternoon, the Federals repulsed a piecemeal Confederate infantry attack. During the night, the rest of Schofield’s command passed from Columbia through Spring Hill to Franklin. This was, perhaps, Hood’s best chance to isolate and defeat the Union army. The engagement has been described as one of the most controversial non-fighting events of the entire war.”

Result(s): Union victory


Franklin

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Williamson County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): November 30, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: IV and XXIII Army Corps (Army of the Ohio and Cumberland) [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 8,587 total (US 2,326; CS 6,261)

Description: Having lost a good opportunity at Spring Hill to hurt significantly the Union Army, Gen. John B. Hood marched in rapid pursuit of Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield’s retreating Union army. Schofield’s advance reached Franklin about sunrise on November 30 and quickly formed a defensive line in works thrown up by the Yankees in the spring of 1863, on the southern edge of town. Schofield wished to remain in Franklin to repair the bridges and get his supply trains over them. Skirmishing at Thompson’s Station and elsewhere delayed Hood’s march, but, around 4:00 pm, he marshaled a frontal attack against the Union perimeter. Two Federal brigades holding a forward position gave way and retreated to the inner works, but their comrades ultimately held in a battle that caused frightening casualties. When the battle ceased, after dark, six Confederate generals were dead or had mortal wounds. Despite this terrible loss, Hood’s army, late, depleted and worn, crawled on toward Nashville.

Result(s): Union victory


Murfreesboro

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: Wilkinson Pike, Cedars

Location: Rutherford County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): December 5-7, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Lovell H. Rousseau and Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy [US]; Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: District of Tennessee (forces in Murfreesboro area; approx. 8,000) [US]; Forrest’s Cavalry, Bate’s Infantry Division, and Brig. Gen. Claudius Sears’s and Brig. Gen. Joseph B. Palmer’s Infantry Brigades (6,500-7,000) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 422 total (US 225; CS 197)

Description: In a last, desperate attempt to force Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s army out of Georgia, Gen. John Bell Hood led the Army of Tennessee north toward Nashville in November 1864. Although he suffered a terrible loss at Franklin, he continued toward Nashville. In operating against Nashville, he decided that destruction of the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad and disruption of the Union army supply depot at Murfreesboro would help his cause. He sent Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, on December 4, with an expedition, composed of two cavalry divisions and Maj. Gen. William B. Bate’s infantry division, to Murfreesboro.

On December 2, Hood had ordered Bate to destroy the railroad and blockhouses between Murfreesboro and Nashville and join Forrest for further operations; on December 4, Bate’s division attacked Blockhouse No. 7 protecting the railroad crossing at Overall Creek, but Union forces fought it off. On the morning of the 5th, Forrest headed out toward Murfreesboro, splitting his force, one column to attack the fort on the hill and the other to take Blockhouse No. 4, both at La Vergne. Upon his demand for surrender at both locations, the Union garrisons did so. Outside La Vergne, Forrest hooked up with Bate’s division and the command advanced on to Murfreesboro along two roads, driving the Yankees into their Fortress Rosencrans fortifications, and encamped in the city outskirts for the night.

The next morning, on the 6th, Forrest ordered Bate’s division to move upon the enemy’s works. Fighting flared for a couple of hours, but the Yankees ceased firing and both sides glared at each other for the rest of the day. Brig. Gen. Claudius Sears’s and Brig. Gen. Joseph B. Palmer’s infantry brigades joined Forrest’s command in the evening, further swelling his numbers. On the morning of the 7th, Maj. Gen. Lovell Rousseau, commanding all of the forces at Murfreesboro, sent two brigades out under Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy on the Salem Pike to feel out the enemy. These troops engaged the Confederates and fighting continued. At one point some of Forrest’s troops broke and ran causing disorder in the Rebel ranks; even entreaties from Forrest and Bate did not stem the rout of these units. The rest of Forrest’s command conducted an orderly retreat from the field and encamped for the night outside Murfreesboro. Forrest had destroyed railroad track, blockhouses, and some homes and generally disrupted Union operations in the area, but he did not accomplish much else. The raid on Murfreesboro was a minor irritation.

Result(s): Union victory


Nashville

Civil War battles in Tennessee

Other Names: None

Location: Davidson County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): December 15-16, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Gen. John Bell Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: IV Army Corps, XXIII Army Corps, Detachment of Army of the Tennessee, provisional detachment, and cavalry corps [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 6,602 total (US 2,140; CS 4,462)

Description: In a last desperate attempt to force Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s army out of Georgia, Gen. John Bell Hood led the Army of Tennessee north toward Nashville in November 1864. Although he suffered terrible losses at Franklin on November 30, he continued toward Nashville. By the next day, the various elements of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas’s army had reached Nashville. Hood reached the outskirts of Nashville on December 2, occupied positions on a line of hills parallel to those of the Union and began erecting fieldworks. Union Army Engineer, Brig. Gen. James St. Clair Morton, had overseen the construction of sophisticated fortifications at Nashville in 1862-63, strengthened by others, which would soon see use. From the 1st through the 14th, Thomas made preparations for the Battle of Nashville in which he intended to destroy Hood’s army. On the night of December 14, Thomas informed Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, acting as Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s chief of staff, that he would attack the next day. Thomas planned to strike both of Hood’s flanks. Before daylight on the 15th, the first of the Union troops, led by Maj. Gen. James Steedman, set out to hit the Confederate right.

The attack was made and the Union forces held down one Rebel corps there for the rest of the day. Attack on the Confederate left did not begin until after noon when a charge commenced on Montgomery Hill. With this classic charge’s success, attacks on other parts of the Confederate left commenced, all eventually successful. By this time it was dark and fighting stopped for the day. Although battered and with a much smaller battle line, Gen. Hood was still confident. He established a main line of resistance along the base of a ridge about two miles south of the former location, throwing up new works and fortifying Shy’s and Overton’s hills on their flanks. The IV Army Corps marched out to within 250 yards, in some places, of the Confederate’s new line and began constructing fieldworks. During the rest of the morning, other Union troops moved out toward the new Confederate line and took up positions opposite it. The Union attack began against Hood’s strong right flank on Overton’s Hill.

The same brigade that had taken Montgomery Hill the day before received the nod for the charge up Overton’s Hill. This charge, although gallantly conducted, failed, but other troops (Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith’s Israelites ) successfully assaulted Shy’s Hill in their fronts. Seeing the success along the line, other Union troops charged up Overton’s Hill and took it. Hood’s army fled. Thomas had left one escape route open but the Union army set off in pursuit. For ten days, the pursuit continued until the beaten and battered Army of Tennessee recrossed the Tennessee River. Hood’s army was stalled at Columbia, beaten at Franklin, and routed at Nashville. Hood retreated to Tupelo and resigned his command.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Tennessee2019-07-25T20:35:30-04:00

Civil War Battles in West Virginia

All Civil War battles in West Virginia. They are in the order that they took place during the course of the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in West Virginia

Civil War Battles in West Virginia


Philippi

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Philippi Races

Location: Barbour County

Campaign: Operations in Western Virginia (June-December 1861)

Date(s):June 3, 1861

Principal Commanders: Col. Thomas A. Morris [US]; Col. George A. Porterfield [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 30 total (US 4; CS 26)

Description: Col. Thomas A. Morris, temporarily in command of Union forces in western Virginia, mounted a two-prong advance under E. Dumont and B.F. Kelley against a small Confederate occupation force at Philippi under Porterfield. Kelley marched on back roads from near Grafton on June 2 to reach the rear of the town, while Dumont moved south from Webster. Both columns arrived at Philippi before dawn on the 3rd. The resulting surprise attack routed the Confederate troops, forcing them to retreat to Huttonsville. Although a small affair, this was considered the first major land action in the Eastern Theater.

Result(s): Union victory


Hoke’s Run

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Falling Waters, Hainesville

Location: Berkeley County

Campaign: Manassas Campaign (July 1861)

Date(s): July 2, 1861

Principal Commanders:Maj. Gen. Robert Patterson [US]; Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties:114 total (US 23; CS 91)

Description: On July 2, Maj. Gen. Robert Patterson’s division crossed the Potomac River near Williamsport and marched on the main road to Martinsburg. Near Hoke’s Run, Abercrombie’s and Thomas’s brigades encountered regiments of T.J. Jackson’s brigade, driving them back slowly. Jackson’s orders were to delay the Federal advance only, which he did, withdrawing before Patterson’s larger force. On July 3, Patterson occupied Martinsburg but made no further aggressive moves until July 15, when he marched to Bunker Hill.

Instead of moving on Winchester, however, Patterson turned east to Charles Town and then withdrew to Harpers Ferry. This retrograde movement took pressure off Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley and allowed Johnston’s army to march to support Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard at Manassas. Patterson’s inactivity contributed to the Union defeat at First Manassas.

Result(s): Union victory


Rich Mountain

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: None

Location: Randolph County

Campaign: Operations in Western Virginia (June-December 1861)

Date(s): July 11, 1861

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan and Brig. Gen. William S. Rosecrans [US]; Lt. Col. John Pegram andBrig. Gen. Robert S. Garnett [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 346 total (US 46; CS 300)

Description:Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan assumed command of Union forces in western Virginia in June 1861. On June 27, he moved his divisions from Clarksburg south against Lt. Col. John Pegram’s Confederates, reaching the vicinity of Rich Mountain on July 9. Meanwhile, Brig. Gen. T.A. Morris’s Union brigade marched from Philippi to confront Brig. Gen. R.S. Garnett’s command at Laurel Hill. On July 11, Brig. Gen. William S. Rosecrans led a reinforced brigade by a mountain path to seize the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike in Pegram’s rear.

A sharp two-hour fight ensued in which the Confederates were split in two. Half escaped to Beverly, but Pegram and the others surrendered on July 13. Hearing of Pegram’s defeat, Garnett abandoned Laurel Hill. The Federals pursued, and, during fighting at Corrick’s Ford on July 13, Garnett was killed. On July 22, McClellan was ordered to Washington, and Rosecrans assumed command of Union forces in western Virginia. Union victory at Rich Mountain was instrumental in propelling McClellan to command of the Army of the Potomac.

Result(s): Union victory


Kessler’s Cross Lanes

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Cross Lanes

Location: Nicholas County

Campaign: Operations in Western Virginia (June-December 1861)

Date(s): August 26, 1861

Principal Commanders:Col. Erastus Tyler [US]; Brig. Gen. John Floyd [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 285 total (US 245; CS 40)

Description: On August 26, Brig. Gen. John Floyd, commanding Confederate forces in the Kanawha Valley, crossed the Gauley River to attack Col. Erastus Tyler’s 7th Ohio Regiment encamped at Kessler’s Cross Lanes. The Union forces were surprised and routed. Floyd then withdrew to the river and took up a defensive position at Carnifex Ferry. During the month, Gen. Robert E. Lee arrived in western Virginia and attempted to coordinate the forces of Brig. Gens. Floyd, Henry Wise, and William W. Loring.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Cheat Mountain

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Cheat Mountain Summit

Location: Pocahontas County

Campaign: Operations in Western Virginia (June-December 1861)

Date(s): September 12-15 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Joseph Reynolds [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee and Col. Albert Rust [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 170 total (US 80; CS 90)

Description:Gen. Robert E. Lee directed his first offensive of the war against Brig. Gen. Joseph Reynolds’s entrenchments on the summit of Cheat Mountain and in the Tygart Valley. The Confederate attacks were uncoordinated, however, and the Federal defense was so stubborn that Col. Albert Rust (leading the attacks) was convinced that he confronted an overwhelming force.

He actually faced only about 300 determined Federals. Lee called off the attack and, after maneuvering in the vicinity, withdrew to Valley Head on September 17. In October, Lee renewed operations against Laurel Mountain with the troops of Floyd and Loring, but the operation was called off because of poor communication and lack of supplies. Lee was recalled to Richmond on October 30 after achieving little in western Virginia.

Result(s): Union victory


Carnifex Ferry

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: None

Location: Nicholas County

Campaign: Operations in Western Virginia (June-December 1861)

Date(s): September 10, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. William S. Rosecrans [US]; Brig. Gen. John Floyd [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 250 total

Description: Learning of Col. Erastus Tyler’s rout at Kessler’s Cross Lanes, Brig. Gen. William S. Rosecrans moved three brigades south from Clarksburg to support him. On the afternoon of September 10, he advanced against Brig. Gen. John Floyd’s camps at Carnifex Ferry. Darkness halted several hours fighting. The strength of the Union artillery convinced Floyd to retreat during the night. Floyd blamed his defeat on his co-commander Brig. Gen. Henry Wise, contributing to further dissension in the Confederate ranks.

Result(s): Union victory


Greenbrier River

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Camp Bartow

Location: Pocahontas County

Campaign: Operations in Western Virginia (June-December 1861)

Date(s): October 3, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Joseph Reynolds [US]; Brig. Gen. Henry R. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 80 total (US 40; CS 40)

Description: During the night of October 2-3, Brig. Gen. Joseph Reynolds with two brigades advanced from Cheat Mountain to reconnoiter the Confederate position at Camp Bartow on the Greenbrier River. Reynolds drove in the Confederate pickets and opened fire with his artillery. After sporadic fighting and an abortive attempt to turn his enemy’s right flank, Reynolds withdrew to Cheat Mountain.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Camp Alleghany

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Allegheny Mountain

Location: Pocahontas County

Campaign: Operations in Western Virginia (June-December 1861)

Date(s): December 13, 1861

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy [US]; Col. Edward Allegheny Johnson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 283 total (US 137; CS 146)

Description: In December, Confederate forces under Col. Edward Johnson occupied the summit of Allegheny Mountain to defend the Staunton-Parkersburg Pike. A Union force under Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy attacked Johnson on December 13. Fighting continued for much of the morning as each side maneuvered to gain the advantage. Finally, Milroy’s troops were repulsed, and he retreated to his camps near Cheat Mountain. At year’s end, Edward Johnson remained at Camp Allegheny with five regiments, and Henry Heth was at Lewisburg with two regiments.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Princeton Court House

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Princton Court House, WV

Location: Mercer County

Campaign: Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1862)

Date(s): May 15-17, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Jacob D. Cox [US];Brig. Gen. Humphery Marshall [CS]

Forces Engaged: District of the Kanawha [US]; Army of East Kentucky and Col. Gabriel C. Wharton’s Brigade, Department of Southwest Virginia [CS}

Estimated Casualties:129 total (US 23k/69w/21m; CS incomplete, Marshall 4k/12w, Wharton no report)

Description: By early May 1862 Union forces in today’s West Virginia were positioned to breach the Alleghenies and debouch into Virginia’s Great Valley at two points more than 100 miles apart. Brig. Gen. Robert H. Milroy’s column, its axis of march the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike, advanced from Cheat Mountain and occupied in succession Camp Allegheny, Monteray, McDowell, and Shenandoah Mountain. Retreating before the oncoming Federals, Confederate Brig. Gen. Edward Johnson pulled back to Westview, six miles west of Staunton. Union soldiers of Brig. Gen. Jacob D. Cox’s District of Kanawha threatened the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad.

The Federals by mid-May, although ousted from Pearisburg, held Mercer County and braced for a lunge at the railroad. Confederate Brig. Gen. Humphery Marshall arrived from Abingdon, Virginia, with the Army of East Kentucky. Boldly seizing the initiative, Marshall bested Cox’s two brigades during three days of fighting, May 15-17, in Mercer County centering on Princeton Courthouse. Breaking contact with the Confederates on the night of the 17-18, Cox withdrew 20 miles to Camp Flat Top. Col. George Crook, commanding Cox’s 3rd brigade, marched via the James and Kanawha Turnpike and occupied Lewisburg, where on May 23 he defeated Brig. Gen. Henry Heth’s brigade. Upon learning that Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson’s army had routed Maj. Gen. N.P. Banks division at Winchester (March 25) and driven it across the Potomac, Crook evacuated Lewisburg and pulled back to Meadow Bluff.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Harpers Ferry

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: None

Location: Jefferson County

Campaign: Maryland Campaign (September 1862)

Date(s):September 12-15, 1862

Principal Commanders:Col. Dixon S. Miles [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 12,922 total (US 44k/173w/12,419 captured; CS 39k/247w)

Description: Learning that the garrison at Harpers Ferry had not retreated after his incursion into Maryland, Lee decided to surround the force and capture it. He divided his army into four columns, three of which converged upon and invested Harpers Ferry. On September 15, after Confederate artillery was placed on the heights overlooking the town, Union commander Col. Miles surrendered the garrison of more than 12,000.

Miles was mortally wounded by a last salvo fired from a battery on Loudoun Heights. Jackson took possession of Harpers Ferry, then led most of his soldiers to join with Lee at Sharpsburg. After paroling the prisoners at Harpers Ferry, A.P. Hill’s division arrived in time to save Lee’s army from near-defeat at Sharpsburg.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Droop Mountain

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: None

Location: Pocahontas County

Campaign: Averell’s Raid on the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad (November 1863)

Date(s): November 6, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. William W. Averell [US]; Brig. Gen. John Echols [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 526 total

Description:In early November, Brig. Gens. W.W. Averell and Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié embarked on a raid into southwestern Virginia to disrupt the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad. While Duffié’s column destroyed military property en route, Averell encountered and defeated a Confederate brigade under Brig. Gen. John Echols at Droop Mountain. The Union columns reunited at Lewisburg the next day but were in no condition to continue their raid. After this battle, Confederate resistance in West Virginia collapsed.

Result(s): Union victory


Moorefield

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Oldfields

Location: Hardy County

Campaign: Early’s Raid and Operations against the B&O Railroad (June-August)

Date(s): August 7, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. William W. Averell [US]; Brig. Gen. John McCausland [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties:531 total

Description: While returning to the Shenandoah Valley after burning Chambersburg, McCausland’s and Johnson’s cavalry were surprised at Moorefield on August 7 and routed by pursuing Union cavalry. This defeat impeded the morale and effectiveness of the Confederate cavalry for the remainder of the 1864 Valley Campaign.

Result(s): Union victory


Summit Point

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Flowing Springs, Cameron’s Depot

Location: Jefferson County

Campaign: Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (August-December 1864)

Date(s): August 21, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,000 total

Description:As Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan concentrated his army near Charles Town, Lt. Gen. Jubal Early and Maj. Gen. Richard Anderson attacked the Federals with converging columns on August 21. Early moved east via Smithfield against the Union VI Corps. Anderson struck north against Wilson’s Union cavalry at Summit Point. There was cavalry fighting near Berryville. The Federals fought effective delaying actions, withdrawing to near Halltown on the following day.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Smithfield Crossing

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: None

Location: Jefferson County and Berkeley County

Campaign: Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (August-December 1864)

Date(s): August 25-29, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Wesley Merritt [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 300 total

Description: On August 29, two Confederate infantry divisions crossed Opequon Creek at Smithfield and forced back Merritt’s Union cavalry division back along the road to Charles Town. Ricketts’s infantry division was brought up to stop the Confederate advance.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Shepherdstown

Civil War battles in West Virginia

Other Names: Boteler’s Ford

Location: Jefferson County

Campaign: Maryland Campaign (September 1862)

Date(s): September 19-20, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter [US]; Brig. Gen. William Pendleton and Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 625 total

Description: On September 19, a detachment of Porter’s V Corps pushed across the river at Boteler’s Ford, attacked the Confederate rearguard commanded by Brig. Gen. William Pendleton, and captured four guns. Early on the 20th, Porter pushed elements of two divisions across the Potomac to establish a bridgehead. Hill’s division counterattacked while many of the Federals were crossing and nearly annihilated the 118th Pennsylvania (the Corn Exchange Regiment), inflicting 269 casualties. This rearguard action discouraged Federal pursuit. On November 7, President Lincoln relieved McClellan of command because of his failure to follow up Lee’s retreating army. Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside rose to command the Union army.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Civil War Battles in West Virginia2019-07-25T20:29:14-04:00

Civil War Battles in Louisiana

All Civil War battles in Louisiana. They are in the order that they occurred in during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in Louisiana

Civil War Battles in Louisiana


Forts Jackson and St. Philip

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: None

Location: Plaquemines Parish

Campaign: Expedition to and Capture of New Orleans (1862)

Date(s): April 16-28, 1862

Principal Commanders: Flag-Officer David G. Farragut [US]; Brig. Gen. Johnson K. Duncan and Cdr. John K. Mitchell [CS]

Forces Engaged: West Gulf Blockading Squadron [US]; Garrisons of Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the crews of various ships [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,011 total (US 229; CS 782)

Description: Early Union plans had called for the division of the Confederacy by seizing control of the Mississippi River. One of the first steps in such operations was to enter the mouth of the Mississippi River, ascend to New Orleans and capture the city, closing off the entrance to Rebel ships. In mid-January 1862, Flag-Officer David G. Farragut undertook this enterprise with his West Gulf Blockading Squadron. The way was soon open except for the two forts, Jackson and St. Philip, above the Head of the Passes, approximately seventy miles below New Orleans. In addition to the forts and their armament, the Confederates had placed obstructions in the river and there were a number of ships, including two ironclads, to assist in the defense. Farragut based his operations from Ship Island, Mississippi, and on April 8, he assembled 24 of his vessels and Comdr. David D. Porter’s 19 mortar schooners near the Head of the Passes. Starting on the 16th and continuing for seven days, the mortar schooners bombarded Fort Jackson but failed to silence its guns. Some of Farragut’s gunboats opened a way through the obstruction on the night of the 22nd. Early on the morning of the 24th, Farragut sent his ships north to pass the forts and head for New Orleans. Although the Rebels attempted to stop the Union ships in various ways, most of the force successfully passed the forts and continued on to New Orleans where Farragut accepted the city’s surrender. With the passage of the forts, nothing could stop the Union forces: the fall of New Orleans was inevitable and anti-climatic. Cut off and surrounded, the garrisons of the two forts surrendered on the 28th.

Result(s): Union victory


New Orleans

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: None

Location: Orleans Parish and St. Bernard Parish

Campaign: Expedition to and Capture of New Orleans (1862)

Date(s): April 25 May 1, 1862

Principal Commanders: Flag-Officer David G. Farragut and Maj. Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler [US]; Maj. Gen. Mansfield Lovell [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of the Gulf [US]; Department No. 1 [CS]

Estimated Casualties: None

Description: Following the passage of forts Jackson and St. Philip, near the mouth of the Mississippi River, on April 24, 1862, the Union occupation of New Orleans was inevitable. Union Flag-Officer David G. Farragut, with his squadron, continued up the Mississippi River and demanded the surrender of the City of New Orleans the next day. The city surrendered on April 28. On May 1, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler’s army began landing at New Orleans and occupying the city. New Orleans, considered an international city and the largest city in the Confederacy, had fallen. The Union occupation of New Orleans was an event that had major international significance.

Result(s): Union victory


Baton Rouge

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Magnolia Cemetery

Location: East Baton Rouge Parish

Campaign: Operations against Baton Rouge (1862)

Date(s): August 5, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Thomas Williams [US]; Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Brigade, Department of the Gulf [US]; Breckinridge’s Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 849 total (US 371; CS 478)

Description: In an attempt to regain control of the state, Confederates wished to recapture the capital at Baton Rouge. Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge planned a combined land/water expedition with his corps and CSS Ram Arkansas. Advancing west from Camp Moore, the Confederate land forces, coming from the east, were only ten miles away on August 4. They reached the outskirts of the capital early in the morning, formed for an attack in two divisions, and began to drive back each Union unit they encountered. Then, Union gunboats in the river began shelling the Confederates. The Arkansas could have neutralized the Union gunboats, but her engines failed and she did not participate in the battle. Federal land forces, in the meantime, fell back to a more defensible line, and the Union commander, Brig. Gen. Thomas Williams, was killed soon after. The new commander, Col. Thomas W. Cahill, ordered a retreat to a prepared defensive line nearer the river and within the gunboats protection. Rebels assailed the new line, but finally the Federals forced them to retire. The next day the Arkansas’s engines failed again as she closed on the Union gunboats; she was blown up and scuttled by her crew. The Confederates failed to recapture the state capital.

Result(s): Union victory


Donaldsonville

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: None

Location: Ascension Parish

Campaign: Operations against Baton Rouge (1862)

Date(s): August 9, 1862

Principal Commanders: Rear Adm. David G. Farragut [US]; Capt. Phillippe Landry [CS]

Forces Engaged: Three Navy ships [US]; a few partisans [CS]

Estimated Casualties: None known

Description: A number of incidents of artillery firing on Union steamers passing up and down the Mississippi River at Donaldsonville influenced the U.S. Navy to undertake a retaliatory attack. Rear Adm. David G. Farragut sent the town notice of his intentions and suggested that the citizens send the women and children away. He then anchored in front of the town and fired upon it with guns and mortars. Farragut also sent a detachment ashore that set fire to the hotels, wharf buildings, and the dwelling houses and other buildings of Capt. Phillippe Landry. Landry, thought to be the captain of the partisan unit, purportedly fired on the landing party during the raid. Some citizens protested the raid, but, generally, firing on Union ships ceased thereafter.

Result(s): Union victory (inconclusive)


Georgia Landing

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Labadieville, Texana

Location: Lafourche Parish

Campaign: Operations in LaFourche District (1862)

Date(s): October 27, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Godfrey Weitzel [US]; Brig. Gen. Alfred Mouton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Reserve brigade, Department of the Gulf [US]; 18th Louisiana Infantry Regiment, Crescent Regiment, Ralston’s Battery, Detachment of Cavalry, 33rd Louisiana Infantry Regiment, Terre Bonne Regiment Louisiana Militia, Semmes’s Battery and 2nd Louisiana Cavalry Regiment (approx. 1,392 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 315 total (US 86; CS 229)

Description: Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, commanding Union forces in the Department of the Gulf, launched an expedition into the Bayou Lafourche region to eliminate the Rebel threat from that area, to make sure that sugar and cotton products from there would come into Union hands and, in the future, to use it as a base for other military operations. He organized a brigade of about 4,000 men under the command of his protege Brig. Gen. Godfrey Weitzel to accomplish the missions. On October 25, Weitzel and his men arrived at Donaldsonville, where the Lafourche meets the Mississippi, and began an advance up the east bank of the bayou. The Confederates under the command of Brig. Gen. Alfred Mouton attempted to concentrate to meet the threat. By the 27th, the Confederates had occupied a position on the bayou above Labadieville. A little more than half the force was on the east bank while the rest of the men were on the west bank near Georgia Landing, generally without means of concentrating on one side or the other. As the Federal troops continued down the east bank, they encountered the Rebels at about 11:00 am and began skirmishing. The Confederates fell back quickly. Weitzel then began crossing his men to the west bank to attack the Rebel troops there. For some time, these Confederate troops fought resolutely and brought the Union assault to a standstill. The Rebels, however, ran out of artillery ammunition and had to withdraw to Labadieville, opening up this portion of the Lafourche to the Union.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Bisland

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Bethel Place

Location: St. Mary Parish

Campaign: Operations in West Louisiana (1863)

Date(s): April 12-13, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor [CS]

Forces Engaged: Banks’s Department of the Gulf, XIX Army Corps [US]; District of Western Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total 684 (US 234; CS 450)

Description: In April 1863, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks launched an expedition up Bayou Teche in western Louisiana aimed at Alexandria. On April 9, two divisions crossed Berwick Bay from Brashear City to the west side at Berwick. On the 12th, a third division went up the Atchafalaya River to land in the rear of Franklin intending to intercept a Rebel retreat from Fort Bisland or turn the enemy’s position. Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor sent Col. Tom Green’s regiment to the front to ascertain the enemy’s strength and retard his advance. On the 11th, the Yankees began their advance in earnest. Late on the 12th, Union troops arrived outside the defenses in battle line. An artillery barrage ensued from both sides until dark when the Yankees, many of whom were hit by Rebel cannon fire, fell back and camped for the night. About 9:00 am on the 13th, the Union forces again advanced on Fort Bisland. Combat did not begin until after 11:00 am and continued until dusk. In addition to Rebel forces in the earthworks, the gunboat Diana, now in Confederate hands, shelled the Yankees. U.S. gunboats joined the fray in late afternoon. The fighting ceased after this. Later that night, Taylor learned that the Yankee division that went up the Atchafalaya and landed in his rear was now in a position to cut off a Confederate retreat. Taylor began evacuating supplies, men, and weapons, leaving a small force to retard any enemy movement. The next morning, the Yankees found the fort abandoned. Fort Bisland was the only fortification that could have impeded this Union offensive, and it had fallen.

Result(s): Union victory


Irish Bend

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Nerson’s Woods, Franklin

Location: St. Mary Parish

Campaign: Operations in West Louisiana (1863)

Date(s): April 14, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Cuvier Grover [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4th Division, XIX Army Corps [US]; 28th Louisiana Infantry, 2nd Louisiana Cavalry, 12th Louisiana Infantry Battalion, 4th Texas Cavalry, and Cornay’s Louisiana Battery [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 353; CS unknown)

Description: While the other two Union XIX Army Corps divisions comprising the expedition into West Louisiana moved across Berwick Bay towards Fort Bisland, Brig. Gen. Cuvier Grover’s division went up the Atchafalaya River into Grand Lake, intending to intercept a Confederate retreat from Fort Bisland or turn the enemy’s position. On the morning of April 13, the division landed in the vicinity of Franklin and scattered Rebel troops attempting to stop them from disembarking. That night, Grover ordered the division to cross Bayou Teche and prepare for an attack towards Franklin at dawn. In the meantime, Confederate Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor had sent some men to meet Grover’s threat. On the morning of the 14th, Taylor and his men were at Nerson’s Woods, around a mile and a half above Franklin. As Grover’s lead brigade marched out a few miles, it encountered Rebels on its right and began skirmishing with them. The fighting became intense; the Rebels attacked, forcing the Yankees to fall back. The gunboat Diana arrived and anchored the Confederate right flank. The Confederates were outnumbered, however, and, as Grover began making dispositions for an attack, they retreated leaving the field to the Union. This victory, along with the one at Fort Bisland, two days earlier, assured the success of the expedition into West Louisiana.

Result(s): Union victory


Vermillion Bayou

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: None

Location: Lafayette Parish

Campaign: Operations in West Louisiana (1863)

Date(s): April 17, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Cuvier Grover [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4th Division, XIX Army Corps, Army of the Gulf [US]; District of Western Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: While Rear Adm. David G. Farragut remained above Port Hudson with USS Hartford and Albatross, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks decided to go after Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor’s Confederate forces in western Louisiana. He moved by water to Donaldsonville and began a march to Thibodeaux up Bayou Lafourche. Banks beat Taylor at Fort Bisland and Irish Bend, forcing the Rebel army to retreat up the bayou. Taylor reached Vermillionville, crossed Vermillion Bayou, destroyed the bridge, and rested. Banks, in pursuit, sent two columns, on different roads, toward Vermillion Bayou on the morning of April 17. One column reached the bayou while the bridge was burning, advanced, and began skirmishing. Confederate artillery, strategically placed, forced the Yankees back. Then Federal artillery opened a duel with its Confederate counterpart. After dark, the Rebels retreated to Opelousas. The Confederates had slowed the Union advance.

Result(s): Union victory


Plains Store

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Springfield Road

Location: East Baton Rouge Parish

Campaign: Siege of Port Hudson (1863)

Date(s): May 21, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Christopher C. Augur [US]; Col. Frank P. Powers and Col. William R. Miles [CS]

Forces Engaged: 1st Division, XIX Army Corps and Cavalry Brigade [US]; small combined infantry, artillery, and cavalry force [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 250 total (US 150; CS 100)

Description: Early in the morning of May 21, 1863, Maj. Gen. Christopher C. Augur’s Union division advanced from Baton Rouge toward the intersection of Plains Store and Bayou Sara roads on the way to secure a landing, on the river, for Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks. Col. Benjamin H. Grierson’s cavalry, in the lead, encountered Confederate forces under the command of Col. Frank P. Powers and skirmishing ensued. As the morning progressed the Union infantry approached the crossroads and came under fire, bringing on a general engagement. At noon, Col. W.R. Miles set out for Plains Store with Confederate reinforcements. By the time that Miles arrived in the area late in the day, the fighting had ceased, the Rebel forces had retreated, and the Federals were preparing camps for the night. Miles attacked the Union forces and, at first, drove them, but they regrouped and counterattacked. Miles could not stand against the overwhelming Union force and retired into the Port Hudson perimeter. The battle ended, and the last Confederate escape route from Port Hudson was closed.

Result(s): Union victory


Port Hudson

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: None

Location: East Baton Rouge Parish and East Feliciana Parish

Campaign: Siege of Port Hudson (1863)

Date(s): May 21-July 9, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. Franklin Gardner [CS]

Forces Engaged: XIX Army Corps, Army of the Gulf [US]; Confederate forces, 3rd District, Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, Port Hudson [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 12,208 total (US 5,000; CS 7,208)

Description: In cooperation with Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s offensive against Vicksburg, Union Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks’s army moved against the Confederate stronghold at Port Hudson on the Mississippi River. On May 27, after their frontal assaults were repulsed, the Federals settled into a siege which lasted for 48 days. Banks renewed his assaults on June 14 but the defenders successfully repelled them. On July 9, 1863, after hearing of the fall of Vicksburg, the Confederate garrison of Port Hudson surrendered, opening the Mississippi River to Union navigation from its source to New Orleans.

Result(s): Union victory


Milliken’s Bend

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: None

Location: Madison Parish

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): June 7, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. Hermann Lieb [US]; Brig. Gen. Henry E. McCulloch [CS]

Forces Engaged: African Brigade and the 23rd Iowa Volunteer Infantry [US]; McCulloch’s Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 837 total (US 652; CS 185)

Description: On June 6, Col. Hermann Lieb with the African Brigade and two companies of the 10th Illinois Cavalry made a reconnaissance toward Richmond, Louisiana. About three miles from Richmond, Lieb encountered enemy troops at the Tallulah railroad depot and drove them back but then retired, fearing that many more Rebels might be near. While retiring, a squad of Union cavalry appeared, fleeing from a force of Rebels. Lieb got his men into battle line and helped disperse the pursuing enemy. He then retired to Milliken’s Bend and informed his superior by courier of his actions. The 23rd Iowa Infantry and two gunboats came to his assistance. Around 3:00 am on June 7, Rebels appeared in force and drove in the pickets. They continued their movement towards the Union left flank. The Federal forces fired some volleys that caused the Rebel line to pause momentarily, but the Texans soon pushed on to the levee where they received orders to charge. In spite of receiving more volleys, the Rebels came on, and hand-to-hand combat ensued. In this intense fighting, the Confederates succeeded in flanking the Union force and caused tremendous casualties with enfilade fire. The Union force fell bank to the river’s bank. About that time Union gunboats Choctaw and Lexington appeared and fired upon the Rebels. The Confederates continued firing and began extending their right to envelop the Federals but failed in their objective. Fighting continued until noon when the Confederates withdrew. The Union pursued, firing many volleys, and the gunboats pounded the Confederates as they retreated to Walnut Bayou.

Result(s): Union victory


LaFourche Crossing

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Lafourche Crossing

Location: Lafourche Parish

Campaign: Taylor’s Operations in West Louisiana (1863)

Date(s): June 20-21, 1863

Principal Commanders: Lt. Col. Albert Stickney [US]; Col. James P. Major [CS]

Forces Engaged: 838 men from eight regiments [US]; 2nd Cavalry Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 267 total (US 48; CS 219)

Description: Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor sent an expedition under Col. James P. Major to break Union supply lines, disrupt Union activities and force an enemy withdrawal from Brashear (Morgan) City and Port Hudson. Major set out from Washington, Louisiana, on Bayou Teche, heading south and east. While marching, his men conducted raids on Union forces, boats, and plantations and in the process captured animals and supplies and liberated slaves. Brig. Gen. William H. Emory, commanding the defenses of New Orleans, assigned Lt. Col. Albert Stickney to command in Brashear City and to stem the Rebel raid if possible. Emory informed Stickney of Major’s descent on LaFourche Crossing and ordered him to send troops. Feeling that no threat to Brashear City existed, Stickney, himself, led troops off to LaFourche Crossing, arriving on the morning of the 20th. That afternoon, Stickney’s scouts reported that the enemy was advancing rapidly. The Rebel forces began driving in Stickney’s pickets around 5:00 pm. Confederate cavalry then advanced but was driven back. After the Union troops fired a few rounds, the Confederates withdrew in the direction of Thibodeaux. In the late afternoon of the 21st, Confederate soldiers engaged the Union pickets, and fighting continued for more than an hour before the Rebels retired. About 6:30 pm, the Confederates reappeared in force, started an artillery duel, and charged the Union lines at 7:00 pm. An hour later, the Confederates disengaged and retired toward Thibodeaux. The Union held the field. Despite the defeat, Major’s raiders continued on to Brashear City.

Result(s): Union victory


Donaldsonville

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: None

Location: Ascension Parish

Campaign: Taylor’s Operations in West Louisiana (1863)

Date(s): June 28, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Joseph D. Bullen [US]; Brig. Gen. Tom Green [CS]

Forces Engaged: Fort Butler Garrison: two companies of the 28th Maine Volunteer Infantry and some convalescents from various regiments [US]; Tom Green’s Texas Brigade and Colonel James Patrick Major’s Texas Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 324 total (US 23; CS 301)

Description: On June 28, 1863, Confederate Brig. Gen. Jean Alfred Mouton ordered Brig. Gen. Tom Green’s and Col. James P. Major’s brigades to take Donaldsonville. The Union had built Fort Butler, which the Rebels had to take before occupying the town. On the night of June 27, Green, within a mile and a half of the fort, began moving troops ahead to attack. The attack started soon after midnight, and the Confederates quickly surrounded the fort and began passing through the various obstructions. Unfortunately, those troops attacking along the levee came to a ditch, unknown to them, too wide to cross, that saved the day for the Union garrison. A Union gunboat, Princess Royal, came to the garrison’s aid also and began shelling the attackers. Futile Confederate assaults continued for some time but they eventually ceased their operations and retired. This point on the Mississippi remained in Union hands and many other Mississippi River towns were occupied by the Yankees: the Confederates could harass but not eliminate these Union enclaves.

Result(s): Union victory


Goodrich’s Landing

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: The Mounds, Lake Providence

Location: East Carroll Parish

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): June 29-30, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Alfred W. Ellet [US]; Col. William H. Parsons [CS]

Forces Engaged: Mississippi Marine Brigade, Brigade of 1st Arkansas Volunteers (African Descent) and 10th Louisiana (African Descent) [US]; 12th and 19th Texas cavalry Regiments, 15th Louisiana Cavalry Battalion, Cameron’s Louisiana Battery, and Ralston’s Mississippi Battery [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 120; CS unknown)

Description: After Union forces began occupying the Louisiana river parishes, thousands of escaped slaves flocked to them. The Federals, therefore, leased some plantations and put the freedmen to work growing cotton or other crops; the proceeds from the sale of the crops helped defray expenses for food, clothing, etc. African-American troops were assigned to protect these plantations, releasing other troops to fight. Confederates, determined to recapture some of these freedmen and destroy the crops, undertook an expedition from Gaines’s Landing, Arkansas, to Lake Providence. The Federals had constructed a fort on an Indian mound to protect some of these leased plantations. The Rebels prepared to attack the fort on the 29th but decided to demand unconditional surrender first, which the Union forces accepted. Later in the day, Confederate Col. W.H. Parsons fought companies of the 1st Kansas Mounted Infantry. The Rebels then began burning and destroying the surrounding plantations, especially those that the Yankees leased. By the next morning, U.S. Naval boats had landed the Mississippi Marine Brigade, under the command of Brig. Gen. Alfred W. Ellet, at Goodrich’s Landing. At dawn, he set out with Col. William F. Wood’s African-American units to find the Rebels. Ellet’s cavalry found the Confederates first and began skirmishing. The fight became more intense as Ellet’s other forces approached. Parsons eventually disengaged and fell back. Although the Confederates disrupted these operations, destroyed much property, and captured many supplies and weapons, the raid was a minor setback for the Union. The Confederates could cause momentary disturbances, but they were unable to effect any lasting changes.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Kock’s Plantation

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Cox’s Plantation

Location: Ascension Parish

Campaign: Taylor’s Operations in West Louisiana (1863)

Date(s): November 28, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Godfrey Weitzel and Brig. Gen. Cuvier Grover [US]; Brig. Gen. Tom Green [CS]

Forces Engaged: Godfrey Weitzel’s and Cuvier Grover’s Divisions, XIX Army Corps [US]; two understrength Confederate brigades [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 463 total (US 430; CS 33)

Description: Following the surrender of Port Hudson, two Union divisions were shifted to Donaldsonville by transports, to move inland and pacify the interior. They marched up Bayou Lafourche, a division on each bank. Confederate Brig. Gen. Tom Green posted a brigade on the east side of the bayou and placed his second brigade on the other side. As the Union forces advanced, skirmishing occurred on July 11 and 12. On the morning of the 13th, a foraging detachment set out along both banks of the bayou. Upon reaching Kock’s Plantation (Saint Emma Plantation) they met Rebel skirmishers that forced them back. Then, the Confederates flung their might against the Union troops which kept retiring although they tried to make stands at various points. The Union troops eventually fell back to the protection of the guns in Fort Butler at Donaldsonville, about six miles from Kock’s Plantation. A much smaller Rebel force had routed the Yankees. The expedition failed, leaving the Confederates in control of the interior.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Stirling’s Plantation

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Fordoche Bridge

Location: Pointe Coupeé Parish

Campaign: Taylor’s Operations in West Louisiana (1863)

Date(s): September 29, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Napoleon J.T. Dana [US]; Brig. Gen. Tom Green [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Division, XIII Army Corps [US]; forces on the Atchafalaya River [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 575 total (US 454; CS unknown)

Description: Following the Union defeat at Sabine Pass earlier in the month, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks intended to occupy important locations in Texas. He decided to send troops up the Bayou Teche, disembark them on the plains and march overland to Texas. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent him a division, commanded by Maj. Gen. Napoleon J.T. Dana to garrison Morganza and prevent Rebel troops from operating on the Atchafalaya River. A 1,000-man detachment, under the command of Lt. Col. J.B. Leake, was at Stirling’s Plantation to guard the road to the Atchafalaya River and deter any enemy troops from passing by. Brig. Gen. Alfred Mouton, commander of the Sub-District of Southwestern Louisiana, decided that he had a favorable opportunity to defeat the Union forces around Fordoche Bridge. On September 19, he instructed Brig. Gen. Tom Green to prepare for such an attack. Mouton provided Green with reinforcements and gave the order to attack on the 25th. Green’s force began crossing the Atchafalaya River on the 28th, and all were over after midnight of the 29th. At dawn on the 29th, Green’s men marched out. Confederate cavalry began skirmishing with Union pickets at Fordoche Bridge before noon and continued for about a half hour. Green’s other troops then hit the Union force, drove them and captured many, although most of the Federal cavalry found an escape route. Although Dana sent reinforcements, mud and rain slowed their progress and allowed Green to get away. Green had defeated this Union force handily, but it did not deter Banks from his intended movement.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Fort DeRussy

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: None

Location: Avoyelles Parish

Campaign: Red River Campaign (1864)

Date(s): March 14, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. A.J. Smith and Brig. Gen. Joseph Mower [US]; Lt. Col. William Byrd [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3rd Division, XVI Army Corps [US]; Fort DeRussy Garrison (approx. 350 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 317 total (US 48; CS 269)

Description: The Union launched a multi-purpose expedition into Rebel Gen. E. Kirby Smith’s Trans-Mississippi Department, headquartered in Shreveport, Louisiana, in early 1864. Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks and Rear Adm. David D. Porter jointly commanded the combined force. Porter’s fleet and Brig. Gen. A.J. Smith’s XVI and XVII Army Corps detachments of the Army of the Tennessee set out on March 12, 1864, up the Red River, the most direct route to Shreveport. Banks with the XIII and XIX Army Corps advanced by way of Berwick Bay and Bayou Teche. After removing various obstructions that the Rebels had placed in the river, the major impediment to the Union expedition was the formidable Fort DeRussy, an earthen fortification with a partly iron-plated battery designed to resist the fire of Union ironclads that might come up river. Union Brig. Gen. A.J. Smith’s command had embarked on transports at Vicksburg and then disembarked at Simsport, on the 12th, about thirty miles from Fort DeRussy. Smith sent out some troops on the morning of the 13th to determine if any enemy was in their path. This force dispersed and chased an enemy brigade, after which, Smith set his men in motion up the Fort DeRussy road. They did not proceed far before night. Early the next morning, the 14th, they continued the march, discovering that a Confederate division threatened their advance. Always mindful of this threat, Smith had to place part of his command in a position to intercept these Rebel forces if they attacked. Upon arriving at the fort, the enemy garrison of 350 men opened fire. Smith decided to use Mower’s division, XVI Army Corps, to take the fort and set about positioning it for the attack. Around 6:30 pm, Smith ordered a charge on the fort and about twenty minutes later, Mower’s men scaled the parapet, causing the enemy to surrender. Fort DeRussy, which some had said was impregnable, had fallen and the Red River to Alexandria was open.

Result(s): Union victory


Mansfield

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Sabine Cross-Roads, Pleasant Grove

Location: DeSoto Parish

Campaign: Red River Campaign (1864)

Date(s): April 8, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor [CS]

Forces Engaged: Banks’s Red River Expeditionary Force [US]; District of West Louisiana (two divisions) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 4,400 total (US 2,900; CS 1,500)

Description: By this time, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Bank’s Red River Expedition had advanced about 150 miles up Red River. Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor, without any instructions from his commander, Gen. E. Kirby Smith, decided that it was time to try and stem this Union drive. He established a defensive position just below Mansfield, near Sabine Cross-Roads, an important communications center. On April 8, Banks’s men approached, driving Confederate cavalry before them. For the rest of the morning, the Federals probed the Rebel lines. In late afternoon, Taylor, though outnumbered, decided to attack. His men made a determined assault on both flanks, rolling up one and then another of Banks’s divisions. Finally, about three miles from the original contact, a third Union division met Taylor’s attack at 6:00 pm and halted it after more than an hour’s fighting. That night, Taylor unsuccessfully attempted to turn Banks’s right flank. Banks withdrew but met Taylor again on the 9th at Pleasant Hill. Mansfield was the decisive battle of the Red River Campaign, influencing Banks to retreat back toward Alexandria.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Pleasant Hill

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: None

Location: DeSoto Parish and Sabine Parish

Campaign: Red River Campaign (1864)

Date(s): April 9, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor [CS]

Forces Engaged: Red River Expeditionary Force (Banks’s Department of the Gulf) [US]; District of West Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,100 total (US 1,100; CS 2,000)

Description: By April 1864, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks’s Red River Expedition had advanced about 150 miles up Red River. Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor, commander of the Confederate forces in the area, decided, without any instructions from his commander Gen. E. Kirby Smith, that it was time to try and stem this Union drive. Taylor gained a victory at Mansfield on April 8. Banks withdrew from that battlefield to Pleasant Hill, but he knew that fighting would resume the next day. Early on the 9th, Taylor’s reinforced forces marched toward Pleasant Hill in the hopes of finishing the destruction of the Union force. Although outnumbered, Taylor felt that the Union army would be timid after Mansfield and that an audacious, well-coordinated attack would be successful. The Confederates closed up, rested for a few hours, and then attacked at 5:00 pm. Taylor planned to send a force to assail the Union front while he rolled up the left flank and moved his cavalry around the right flank to cut the escape route. The attack on the Union left flank, under the command of Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Churchill, succeeded in sending those enemy troops fleeing for safety. Churchill ordered his men ahead, intending to attack the Union center from the rear. Union troops, however, discerned the danger and hit Churchill’s right flank, forcing a retreat. Pleasant Hill was the last major battle, in terms of numbers of men involved, of the Louisiana phase of the Red River Campaign. Although Banks won this battle, he retreated, wishing to get his army out of west Louisiana before any greater calamity occurred. The battles of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill jointly (although the former was much more decisive) influenced Banks to forget his objective of capturing Shreveport.

Result(s): Union victory


Blair’s Landing

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Pleasant Hill Landing

Location: Red River Parish

Campaign: Red River Campaign (1864)

Date(s): April 12-13, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Thomas Kilby Smith and Rear Adm. David D. Porter [US]; Brig. Gen. Tom Green [CS]

Forces Engaged: Provisional division, XVII Army Corps, Army transports, and U.S. Navy Mississippi Squadron [US]; Green’s Cavalry Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 207 total (US 7; CS 200)

Description: After the battle of Pleasant Hill on April 9, Brig. Gen. Tom Green led his men to Pleasant Hill Landing on the Red River, where, about 4:00 pm on April 12, they discovered grounded and damaged Union transports and gunboats, the XVI and XVII army corps river transportation, and U.S. Navy gunboats, with supplies and armament aboard. Union Brig. Gen. Thomas Kilby Smith’s Provisional Division, XVII Corps, troops, and the Navy gunboats furnished protection for the army transports. Green and his men charged the boats. When Green attacked, Smith’s men used great ingenuity in defending the boats and dispersing the enemy. Hiding behind bales of cotton, sacks of oats, and other ersatz obstructions, the men on the vessels, along with the Navy gunboats, repelled the attack, killed Green, and savaged the Confederate ranks. The Confederates withdrew and most of the Union transports continued downriver. On the 13th, at Campti, other boats ran aground and came under enemy fire from Brig. Gen. St. John R. Liddell’s Sub-District of North Louisiana troops, which harassed the convoy throughout the 12th and 13th. The convoy rendezvoused with Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks’s army at Grand Ecore, providing the army with badly needed supplies.

Result(s): Union victory


Monett’s Ferry

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Cane River Crossing

Location: Natchitoches Parish

Campaign: Red River Campaign (1864)

Date(s): April 23, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks [US]; Brig. Gen. Hamilton P. Bee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Red River Expeditionary Force (Banks’s Department of the Gulf) [US]; Bee’s Cavalry Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 600 total (US 200; CS 400)

Description: Near the end of the Red River Expedition, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks’s army evacuated Grand Ecore and retreated to Alexandria, pursued by Confederate forces. Banks’s advance party, commanded by Brig. Gen. William H. Emory, encountered Brig. Gen. Hamilton P. Bee’s cavalry division near Monett’s Ferry (Cane River Crossing) on the morning of April 23. Bee had been ordered to dispute Emory’s crossing, and he placed his men so that natural features covered both his flanks. Reluctant to assault the Rebels in their strong position, Emory demonstrated in front of the Confederate lines, while two brigades went in search of another crossing. One brigade found a ford, crossed, and attacked the Rebels in their flank. Bee had to retreat. Banks’s men laid pontoon bridges and, by the next day, had all crossed the river. The Confederates at Monett’s Ferry missed an opportunity to destroy or capture Banks’s army.

Result(s): Union victory


Mansura

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Smith’s Place, Marksville

Location: Avoyelles Parish

Campaign: Red River Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 16, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor [CS]

Forces Engaged: Banks’s Red River Expeditionary Force [US]; District of West Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: As Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks’s Red River Expeditionary Force retreated down Red River, Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor attempted to slow the Union troops movements and, if possible, deplete their numbers or, better yet, destroy them. The Union forces passed Fort DeRussy, reached Marksville, and then continued east. At Mansura, Taylor massed his forces in an open prairie that controlled access to the three roads traversing the area, where he hoped his artillery could cause many casualties. Early on the morning of May 16, the Union forces approached, and skirmishing quickly ensued. After a four-hour fight (principally an artillery duel), a large Union force massed for a flank attack, inducing the Rebels to fall back. The Union troops marched to Simmsport. Taylor’s force could harass the enemy’s retrograde but was unable to halt it.

Result(s): Union victory


Yellow Bayou

Civil War battles in Louisiana

Other Names: Norwood’s Plantation

Location: Avoyelles Parish

Campaign: Red River Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 18, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Joseph A. Mower [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor [CS]

Forces Engaged: 1st and 3rd Divisions, XVI Army Corps [US]; District of Western Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 860 total (US 360; CS 500)

Description: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks during his retreat in the Red River Campaign, following the battles of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill, reached the Atchafalaya River on May 17. Once on the other side of the river he would be shielded from the continuous Confederate harassment. But, he had to wait to cross the river until the army engineers constructed a bridge. On the 18th, Banks learned that Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor’s force was near Yellow Bayou so he ordered Brig. Gen. A.J. Smith to stop them. Since Smith could not comply himself, he ordered Brig. Gen. Joseph A. Mower to meet Taylor. The Yankees attacked and drove the Rebels to their main line. The Confederates counterattacked, forcing the Federals to give ground. The Union force finally repulsed the Confederates. This see-saw action continued for several hours until the ground cover caught fire forcing both sides to retire. Yellow Bayou was the last battle of Banks’s ill-fated Red River Expedition, and it insured that the Federals would escape as an army to fight again.

Result(s): Union strategic victory

Civil War Battles in Louisiana2019-07-25T20:43:37-04:00

Civil War Battles in Idaho

Idaho saw virtually no combat during the Civil War. It is so far removed and remote that there were never any Confederate forces in Idaho at all.

The only event that took place during the Civil War was a fight between Native Americans and Union forces in 1863.

This clash began after several Indian raids occurred and the Union decided to put a stop to them.

This fight turned into a massacre as Union forces killed almost all of the Native American warriors and many women and children.

The following are all Civil War battles in Idaho although there is only one that took place.

Civil War Battles in Idaho

Civil War Battles in Idaho


Bear River

Other Names: Massacre at Boa Ogoi

Location: Franklin County

Campaign: Expedition from Camp Douglas, Utah Territory, to Cache Valley, Idaho Territory (1863)

Date(s): January 29, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. Patrick Edward Connor [US]; Chief Bear Hunter [I]

Forces Engaged: District of Utah [US]; Shoshoni Indians [I]

Estimated Casualties: 451 total (US 67; I 384)

Description: Shoshoni raids under Chief Bear Hunter during the winter of 1862-63 provoked Federal retaliation. Troops under Col. Patrick E. Connor set out from Ft. Douglas, Utah, in the deep snow of January 1863 towards Chief Bear Hunter’s camp, 120 miles north near present-day Preston, Idaho. The Native American camp included about 300 Shoshoni warriors defensively placed in the Battle Creek ravine west of Bear River with high embankments in which the Indians had cut access trails. Shortly after dawn on January 29, Connor’s troops appeared across the river and began crossing. Before all of the men had crossed and Connor had arrived, some troops made an unsuccessful frontal attack which the Indians easily repulsed inflicting numerous casualties. When Connor took over, he sent troops to where the ravine debouched through the bluffs. Some of these men covered the mouth of the ravine to prevent any escape while others moved down the rims, firing on the Indians below. This fire killed many of the warriors, but some attempted to escape by swimming the icy river where other troops shot them. The battle stopped by mid-morning. The troopers had killed most of the warriors plus a number of women, children and old men and captured many of the women and children.

Result(s): Union victory (massacre)

Civil War Battles in Idaho2019-07-25T20:47:16-04:00