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Civil War Battles in Georgia

There were many battles in the state of Georgia during the Civil War.

Most of the battles were fought near Atlanta and in the Northwestern part of the state.

The battle of Chickamauga was fought in Georgia in 1863 resulting in a Confederate victory.

However the most famous event that took place in Georgia was Union general William T. Sherman’s march to the sea in late 1864.

Sherman is also famous for the capturing and burning of Atlanta in 1864 which began his march to the sea.

During Sherman’s march to the sea the Union forces destroyed everything of value that they found.

This included ripping up railroad tracks, stealing food and burning anything that the Confederates could use against them.

The southerners tried to stop the march but were unable to do so.

The march finally ended when the Union army arrived in Savannah Georgia.

Below are all Civil War battles in Georgia.

They are in the order in which they occurred during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Civil War Battles in Georgia


Fort Pulaski

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Chatham County

Campaign: Operations against Fort Pulaski (1862)

Date(s): April 10-11, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. David Hunter and Capt. Quincy A. Gillmore [US]; Col. Charles H. Olmstead [CS]

Forces Engaged: The Port Royal Expeditionary Force’s Fort Pulaski investment troops [US]; Fort Pulaski Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 365 total (US 1; CS 364)

Description: Fort Pulaski, built by the U.S. Army before the war, is located near the mouth of the Savannah River, blocking upriver access to Savannah. Fortifications such as Pulaski, called third system forts, were considered invincible, but the new technology of rifled artillery changed that. On February 19, 1862, Brig. Gen. Thomas W. Sherman ordered Captain Quincy A. Gillmore, an engineer officer, to take charge of the investment force and begin the bombardment and capture of the fort. Gillmore emplaced artillery on the mainland southeast of the fort and began the bombardment on April 10 after Colonel Charles H. Olmstead refused to surrender the fort. Within hours, Gillmor’s rifled artillery had breached the southeast scarp of the fort, and he continued to exploit it. Some of his shells began to damage the traverse shielding the magazine in the northwest bastion. Realizing that if the magazine exploded the fort would be seriously damaged and the garrison would suffer severe casualties, Olmstead surrendered after 2:00 pm on April 11.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort McAllister I

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Bryan County

Campaign: Naval Attacks on Fort McAllister (1863)

Date(s): March 3, 1863

Principal Commanders: Capt. P. Drayton, U.S.N. [US]; Capt. George A. Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Union Navy Flotilla [US]; Fort McAllister Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Rear Adm. Samuel F. Du Pont [US] ordered three ironclads, Patapsco, Passaic, and Nahant, to test their guns and mechanical appliances and practice artillery firing by attacking Fort McAllister, then a small three-gun earthwork battery. On March 3, 1863, the three ironclads conducted an eight-hour bombardment. The bombardment did not destroy the battery but did some damage, while the three ironclads received some scratches and dents. The tests were helpful for knowledge and experience gained, but the fort did not fall, showing that the ironclads firepower could not destroy an earthen fort.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Davis Cross Roads

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: Dug Gap

Location: Dade County and Walker County

Campaign: Chickamauga Campaign (1863)

Date(s): September 10-11, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James Negley [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas C. Hindman and Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two divisions [US]; unknown [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: After the Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed his offensive, aiming to force the Rebels out of Chattanooga. The three corps comprising Rosecrans’s army split and set out for Chattanooga by separate routes. Hearing of the Union advance, Braxton Bragg concentrated troops around Chattanooga. While Col. John T. Wilder’s artillery fired on Chattanooga, Rosecrans attempted to take advantage of Bragg’s situation and ordered other troops into Georgia. They raced forward, seized the important gaps, and moved out into McLemore’s Cove. Negley’s XIV Army Corps division, supported by Brig. Gen. Absalom Baird’s division, was moving across the mouth of the cove on the Dug Gap road when Negley learned that Rebels were concentrating around Dug Gap. Moving through determined resistance, he closed on the gap, withdrawing to Davis Cross Roads in the evening of September 10 to await the supporting division. Bragg had ordered General Hindman with his division to assault Negley at Davis Cross Roads in the flank, while Maj. Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne’s division forced its way through Dug Gap to strike Negley in front. Hindman was to receive reinforcements for this movement, but most of them did not arrive. The Rebel officers, therefore, met and decided that they could not attack in their present condition. The next morning, however, fresh troops did arrive, and the Rebels began to move on the Union line. The supporting Union division had, by now, joined Negley, and, hearing of a Confederate attack, the Union forces determined that a strategic withdrawal to Stevens Gap was in order. Negley first moved his division to the ridge east of West Chickamauga Creek where it established a defensive line. The other division then moved through them to Stevens Gap and established a defensive line there. Both divisions awaited the rest of Maj. Gen. George Thomas’s corps. All of this was accomplished under constant pursuit and fire from the Confederates.

Result(s): Union strategic victory


Chickamauga

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Catoosa County and Walker County

Campaign: Chickamauga Campaign (1863)

Date(s): September 18-20, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans and Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg and Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: The Army of the Cumberland [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 34,624 total (US 16,170; CS 18,454)

Description: After the Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed his offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga. The three army corps comprising Rosecrans’s army split and set out for Chattanooga by separate routes. In early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Bragg’s army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Davis Cross Roads. Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecrans’s army, defeat them, and then move back into the city. On the 17th he headed north, intending to meet and beat the XXI Army Corps. As Bragg marched north on the 18th, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles. Fighting began in earnest on the morning of the 19th, and Bragg’s men hammered but did not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg continued his assault on the Union line on the left, and in late morning, Rosecrans was informed that he had a gap in his line. In moving units to shore up the supposed gap, Rosencrans created one, and James Longstreet’s men promptly exploited it, driving one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, from the field. George H. Thomas took over command and began consolidating forces on Horseshoe Ridge and Snodgrass Hill. Although the Rebels launched determined assaults on these forces, they held until after dark. Thomas then led these men from the field leaving it to the Confederates. The Union retired to Chattanooga while the Rebels occupied the surrounding heights.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Ringgold Gap

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Catoosa County

Campaign: Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign (1863)

Date(s): November 27, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US]; Maj. Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne [CS]

Forces Engaged: Three divisions [US]; one division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 912 total (US 432; CS 480)

Description: Following the Union victory at Missionary Ridge and the Rebel retreat, Yankee troops set out in pursuit. Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburne’s command fell back to Ringgold Gap where the Western & Atlantic Railroad passed through Taylor’s Ridge. Maj. Gen. Joseph B. Hooker sent his force forward to seize the ridge, which it failed to do after five hours of heavy fighting.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Dalton I

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Whitfield County

Campaign: Demonstration on Dalton (1864)

Date(s): February 22-27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Cumberland [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: From Vicksburg, Mississippi, Sherman launched a campaign to take the important railroad center at Meridian and, if the situation was favorable, to push on to Selma and threaten Mobile, in order to prevent the shipment of Confederate men and supplies. To counter the threat, Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered troops into the area. While these operations unfolded, Thomas determined to probe Gen. Johnston’s army in the hope that Johnston’s loss of two divisions, sent to reinforce Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk as he withdrew from Meridian to Demopolis, Alabama, would make him vulnerable. Skirmishing and intense fighting occurred throughout the demonstration. At Crow Valley on the 25th, Union troops almost turned the Rebel right flank, but ultimately it held. On the 27th, Thomas’s army withdrew, realizing that Johnston was ready and able to counter any assault.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Rocky Face Ridge

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: Combats at Buzzard Roost, Mill Creek, Dug Gap

Location: Whitfield County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 7-13, 1864

Principal Commanders:Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston had entrenched his army on the long, high mountain of Rocky Face Ridge and eastward across Crow Valley. As Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman approached, he decided to demonstrate against the position with two columns while he sent a third one through Snake Creek Gap, to the right, to hit the Western & Atlantic Railroad at Resaca. The two columns engaged the enemy at Buzzard Roost (Mill Creek Gap) and at Dug Gap. In the meantime, the third column, under Maj. Gen. James Birdseye McPherson, passed through Snake Creek Gap and on the 9th advanced to the outskirts of Resaca where it found Confederates entrenched. Fearing defeat, McPherson pulled his column back to Snake Creek Gap. On the 10th, Sherman decided to take most of his men and join McPherson to take Resaca. The next morning, Sherman’s army withdrew from in front of Rocky Face Ridge. Discovering Sherman’s movement, Johnston retired south towards Resaca on the 12th.

Result(s): Union victory (Union casualties were high, but they did force the Confederates off Rocky Face Ridge.)


Resaca

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Gordon County and Whitfield County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 13-15, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 5,547 total (US 2,747; CS 2,800)

Description: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston had withdrawn from Rocky Face Ridge to the hills around Resaca. On the 13th, the Union troops tested the Rebel lines to pinpoint their whereabouts. The next day full scale fighting occurred, and the Union troops were generally repulsed except on the Rebel right flank where Sherman did not fully exploit his advantage. On the 15th, the battle continued with no advantage to either side until Sherman sent a force across the Oostanula River, at Lay’s Ferry, towards Johnston’s railroad supply line. Unable to halt this Union movement, Johnston was forced to retire.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Adairsville

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Bartow County and Gordon County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 17, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 200; CS unknown)

Description: Following the Battle of Resaca, May 13-15, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s army retreated southward while Sherman pursued. Failing to find a good defensive position south of Calhoun, Johnston continued to Adairsville while the Rebel cavalry fought a skillful rearguard action. On the 17th, skirmish fire continued throughout the day and into the early evening. Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard’s IV Corps ran into entrenched infantry of Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee’s corps, while advancing, about two miles north of Adairsville. The 44th Illinois and 24th Wisconsin (under the command of Maj. Arthur MacArthur, father of Douglas) attacked Cheatham’s Division at Robert Saxon (the Octagon House) and incurred heavy losses. Three Union divisions prepared for battle, but Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas halted them due to the approach of darkness. Sherman then concentrated his men in the Adairsville area to attack Johnston the next day. Johnston had originally expected to find a valley at Adairsville of suitable width to deploy his men and anchor his line with the flanks on hills. The valley, however, was too wide, so Johnston disengaged and withdrew.

Result(s): Confederate delaying action (Allowed Johnston to bait a trap at Cassville.)


New Hope Church

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Paulding County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 25-26, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman and Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 1,600; CS unknown)

Description: After Johnston retreated to Allatoona Pass on May 19-20, Sherman decided that he would most likely pay dearly for attacking Johnston there, so he determined to move around Johnston’s left flank and steal a march toward Dallas. Johnston anticipated Sherman’s move and met the Union forces at New Hope Church. Sherman mistakenly surmised that Johnston had a token force and ordered Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker’s corps to attack. This corps was severely mauled. On the 26th, both sides en-trenched, and skirmishing continued throughout the day. Actions the next day in this area are discussed under Pickett’s Mills.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Dallas

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: New Hope Church, Pumpkinvine Creek

Location: Paulding County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 26-June 1, 1864 (May 28, 1864)

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 5,400 total (US 2,400; CS 3,000)

Description: Johnston’s army fell back from the vicinity of Cassville-Kinston, first to Allatoona Pass and then to the Dallas area and entrenched. Sherman’s army tested the Rebel line while entrenching themselves. The Battle of Dallas occurred on May 28 when Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee’s corps probed the Union defensive line, held by Maj. Gen. John A. Logan’s Army of the Tennessee corps, to exploit any weakness or possible withdrawal. Fighting ensued at two different points, but the Rebels were repulsed, suffering high casualties. Sherman continued looking for a way around Johnston’s line, and, on June 1, his cavalry occupied Allatoona Pass, which had a railroad and would allow his men and supplies to reach him by train. Sherman abandoned his lines at Dallas on June 5 and moved toward the railhead at Allatoona Pass forcing Johnston to follow soon afterwards.

Result(s): Union victory


Pickett’s Mill

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: New Hope, New Hope Church

Location: Paulding County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard [US]; Maj. Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne [CS]

Forces Engaged: IV Corps [US]; Cleburne’s Division and Brig. Gen. John H. Kelly’s Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,100 total (US 1,600; CS 500)

Description: After the Union defeat at New Hope Church, Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman ordered Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard to attack Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s seemingly exposed right flank. The Confederates were ready for the attack, which did not unfold as planned because supporting troops never appeared. The Rebels repulsed the attack causing high casualties.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Marietta [Operations]

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: Marietta Operations

Battles Associated with the Operations: Brushy Mountain, Gilgal Church, Lost Mountain, Mcaffee’s Cross Road, Mud Creek, Neal Dow Station, Noonday Creek, Pine Hill, Pine Mountain, Rottenwood Creek, Ruff’s Mill

Location: Cobb County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): June 9-July 3, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: During the Atlanta Campaign, Sherman maneuvered Johnston’s Confederate army out of several successive defensive positions in Cobb County. This strategy spared the Union army from making costly frontal attacks on the well-situated Confederates.

Sherman first found Johnston’s army entrenched in the Marietta area on June 9. The Confederate’s had established defensive lines along Brushy, Pine, and Lost Mountains. Sherman extended his forces beyond the Confederate lines, causing a partial Rebel withdrawal to another line of positions. After further pressure and skirmishing from Union forces, Johnston withdrew to an arc-shaped position centered on Kennesaw Mountain on June 18 and 19. Sherman made some unsuccessful attacks on this position but eventually extended the line on his right and forced Johnston to withdrawal from the Marietta area on July 2-3.

Result(s): Union victory


Kolb’s Farm

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Cobb County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): June 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield and Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US]; Lt. Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two corps [US]; Hood s Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,350 total (US 350; CS 1,000)

Description: On the night of June 18-19, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, fearing envelopment, moved his army to a new, previously selected position astride Kennesaw Mountain, an entrenched arc-shaped line to the west of Marietta, to protect his supply line, the Western & Atlantic Railroad. Having encountered entrenched Rebels astride Kennesaw Mountain stretching southward, Sherman fixed them in front and extended his right wing to envelop their flank and menace the railroad. Joe Johnston countered by moving John B. Hood’s corps from the left flank to the right on June 22. Arriving in his new position at Mt. Zion Church, Hood decided, on his own, to attack. Warned of Hood’s intentions, Union generals John Schofield and Joseph Hooker entrenched. Union artillery and swampy terrain thwarted Hood’s attack and forced him to withdraw with costly casualties. Although the victor, Sherman’s attempts at envelopment had momentarily failed.

Result(s): Union victory


Kennesaw Mountain

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Cobb County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): June 27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 4,000 total (US 3,000; CS 1,000)

Description: On the night of June 18-19, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, fearing envelopment, withdrew his army to a new, previously selected position astride Kennesaw Mountain. This entrenched arc-shaped line, to the north and west of Marietta, protected the Western & Atlantic Railroad, the supply link to Atlanta. Having defeated General John B. Hood troops at Kolb’s Farm on the 22nd, Sherman was sure that Johnston had stretched his line too thin and, therefore, decided on a frontal attack with some diversions on the flanks. On the morning of June 27, Sherman sent his troops forward after an artillery bombardment. At first, they made some headway overrunning Confederate pickets south of the Burnt Hickory Road, but attacking an enemy that was dug in was futile. The fighting ended by noon, and Sherman suffered high casualties.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Peachtree Creek

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): July 20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Cumberland [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 6,506 total (US 1,710; CS 4,796)

Description: Under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the Army of Tennessee had retired south of Peachtree Creek, an east to west flowing stream, about three miles north of Atlanta. Sherman split his army into three columns for the assault on Atlanta with George H. Thomas’s Army of the Cumberland moving from the north. Johnston had decided to attack Thomas, but Confederate President Jefferson Davis relieved him of command and appointed John B. Hood to take his place. Hood attacked Thomas after his army crossed Peachtree Creek. The determined assault threatened to overrun the Union troops at various locations. Ultimately, though, the Yankees held, and the Rebels fell back.

Result(s): Union victory


Atlanta

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): July 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. John Bell Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 12,140 total (US 3,641; CS 8,499)

Description: Following the Battle of Peachtree Creek, Hood determined to attack Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee. He withdrew his main army at night from Atlanta’s outer line to the inner line, enticing Sherman to follow. In the meantime, he sent William J. Hardee with his corps on a fifteen-mile march to hit the unprotected Union left and rear, east of the city. Wheeler’s cavalry was to operate farther out on Sherman’s supply line, and Gen. Frank Cheatham’s corps were to attack the Union front. Hood, however, miscalculated the time necessary to make the march, and Hardee was unable to attack until afternoon. Although Hood had outmaneuvered Sherman for the time being, McPherson was concerned about his left flank and sent his reserves Grenville Dodge’s XVI Army Corps to that location. Two of Hood’s divisions ran into this reserve force and were repulsed. The Rebel attack stalled on the Union rear but began to roll up the left flank. Around the same time, a Confederate soldier shot and killed McPherson when he rode out to observe the fighting. Determined attacks continued, but the Union forces held. About 4:00 pm, Cheatham’s corps broke through the Union front at the Hurt House, but Sherman massed twenty artillery pieces on a knoll near his headquarters to shell these Confederates and halt their drive. Maj. Gen. John A. Logan’s XV Army Corps then led a counterattack that restored the Union line. The Union troops held, and Hood suffered high casualties.

Result(s): Union victory


Ezra Church

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: Battle of the Poor House

Location: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): July 28, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee [US]; two corps of Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,562 total (US 562; CS 3,000)

Description: Earlier, Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s forces had approached Atlanta from the east and north. Hood had not defeated them, but he had kept them away from the city. Sherman now decided to attack from the west. He ordered the Army of the Tennessee, commanded by Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard, to move from the left wing to the right and cut Hood’s last railroad supply line between East Point and Atlanta. Hood foresaw such a maneuver and determined to send the two corps of Lt. Gen. Stephen D. Lee and Lt. Gen. Alexander P. Stewart to intercept and destroy the Union force. Thus, on the afternoon of July 28, the Rebels assaulted Howard at Ezra Church. Howard had anticipated such a thrust, entrenched one of his corps in the Confederates path, and repulsed the determined attack, inflicting numerous casualties. Howard, however, failed to cut the railroad.

Result(s): Union victory


Utoy Creek

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): August 5-7, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Ohio [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: After failing to envelop Hood’s left flank at Ezra Church, Sherman still wanted to extend his right flank to hit the railroad between East Point and Atlanta. He transferred John M. Schofield’s Army of the Ohio from his left to his right flank and sent him to the north bank of Utoy Creek. Although Schofield’s troops were at Utoy Creek on August 2, they, along with the XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, did not cross until the 4th. Schofield’s force began its movement to exploit this situation on the morning of the 5th, which was initially successful. Schofield then had to regroup his forces, which took the rest of the day. The delay allowed the Rebels to strengthen their defenses with abatis, which slowed the Union attack when it restarted on the morning of the 6th. The Federals were repulsed with heavy losses by Bate’s Division and failed in an attempt to break the railroad. On the 7th, the Union troops moved toward the Confederate main line and entrenched. Here they remained until late August.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Dalton II

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Whitfield County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): August 14-15, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman [US]; Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler [CS]

Forces Engaged: District of Etowah [US]; Wheeler’s cavalry force [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler and his cavalry raided into North Georgia to destroy railroad tracks and supplies. They approached Dalton in the late afternoon of August 14 and demanded the surrender of the garrison. The Union commander, Col. Bernard Laibolt, refused to surrender and fighting ensued. Greatly outnumbered, the Union garrison retired to fortifications on a hill outside the town where they successfully held out, although the attack continued until after midnight. Skirmishing continued throughout the night. Around 5:00 am, on the 15th, Wheeler retired and became engaged with relieving infantry and cavalry under Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman’s command. Eventually, Wheeler withdrew. The contending forces reports vary greatly in describing the fighting, the casualties, and the amount of track and supplies captured and destroyed. This engagement was inconclusive, but since the Confederates withdrew, it may be termed a Union victory.

Result(s): Union victory (The Confederates withdrew.)


Lovejoy’s Station

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Clayton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): August 20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. H. Judson Kilpatrick [US]; Brig. Gen. William H. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Kilpatrick’s Cavalry Division [US]; Jackson’s Cavalry Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: While Confederate Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler was absent raiding Union supply lines from North Georgia to East Tennessee, Maj. Gen. William Sherman, unconcerned, sent Judson Kilpatrick to raid Rebel supply lines. Leaving on August 18, Kilpatrick hit the Atlanta & West Point Railroad that evening, tearing up a small area of tracks. Next, Kilpatrick headed for Lovejoy’s Station on the Macon & Western Railroad. In transit, on the 19th, Kilpatrick’s men hit the Jonesborough supply depot on the Macon & Western Railroad, burning great amounts of supplies. On the 20th, they reached Lovejoy’s Station and began their destruction. Rebel infantry (Cleburne’s Division) appeared and the raiders were forced to fight into the night, finally fleeing to prevent encirclement. Although Kilpatrick had destroyed supplies and track at Lovejoy’s Station, the railroad line was back in operation in two days.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Jonesborough

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Clayton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): August 31 September 1, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Six corps [US]; two corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,149 total (US 1,149; CS 2,000)

Description: Sherman had successfully cut Hood’s supply lines in the past by sending out detachments, but the Confederates quickly repaired the damage. In late August, Sherman determined that if he could cut Hood’s supply lines the Macon & Western and the Atlanta & West Point Railroads the Rebels would have to evacuate Atlanta. Sherman, therefore, decided to move six of his seven infantry corps against the supply lines. The army began pulling out of its positions on August 25 to hit the Macon & Western Railroad between Rough and Ready and Jonesborough. To counter the move, Hood sent Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee with two corps to halt and possibly rout the Union troops, not realizing Sherman’s army was there in force. On August 31, Hardee attacked two Union corps west of Jonesborough but was easily repulsed. Fearing an attack on Atlanta, Hood withdrew one corps from Hardee’s force that night. The next day, a Union corps broke through Hardee’s troops which retreated to Lovejoy’s Station, and on the night of September 1, Hood evacuated Atlanta. Sherman did cut Hood’s supply line but failed to destroy Hardee’s command.

Result(s): Union victory


Allatoona

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Bartow County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): October 5, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John M. Corse [US]; Maj. Gen. Samuel G. French [CS]

Forces Engaged: One brigade (1,944 men) [US]; one division (approx. 2,000 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,505 total (US 706; CS 799)

Description: After the fall of Atlanta, Hood moved northward to threaten the Western & Atlantic Railroad, Sherman’s supply line. He attacked a number of minor garrisons and damaged track during October 2-4. Sherman sent reinforcements John M. Corse’s brigade to Allatoona just before the Rebels attacked there. Maj. Gen. Samuel G. French’s Confederate division arrived near Allatoona at sunrise on the 5th. After demanding a surrender and receiving a negative reply, French attacked. The Union outer line survived a sustained two and a half hour attack, but then fell back and regrouped in an earthen Star fort of Allatoona Pass. French repeatedly attacked, but the fort held. The Rebels began to run out of ammunition, and reports of arriving Union reinforcements influenced them to move off and rejoin Hood’s force.

Result(s): Union victory


Griswoldville

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Jones County and Twiggs County

Campaign: Savannah Campaign (1864)

Date(s): November 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Charles C. Walcutt [US]; Brig. Gen. Pleasant J. Philips and Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps, Army of the Tennessee and two regiments of cavalry [US]; 1st Division Georgia Militia and Cavalry Corps, Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 712 total (US 62; CS 650)

Description: Brig. Gen. Charles Walcutt was ordered to make a demonstration, with the six infantry regiments and one battery that comprised his brigade, toward Macon to ascertain the disposition of enemy troops in that direction. He set out on the morning of November 22, and after a short march he ran into some of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry and drove them beyond Griswoldville. Having accomplished his mission, Walcutt retired to a position at Duncan’s Farm and fortified it with logs and rails to meet an expected Rebel attack force composed of three brigades of Georgia State Militia. The Georgia Militia had been ordered from Macon to Augusta, thinking the latter was Sherman’s next objective, and accidentally collided with Walcutt’s force. The Union force withstood three determined charges before receiving reinforcements of one regiment of infantry and two regiments of cavalry. The Rebels did not attack again and soon retired.

Result(s): Union victory


Buck Head Creek

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Jenkins County

Campaign: Savannah Campaign (1864)

Date(s): November 28, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. H. Judson Kilpatrick [US]; Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3rd Cavalry Division, Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; cavalry corps, Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 646 total (US 46; CS 600)

Description: As Sherman’s infantry marched southeast through Georgia, his cavalry, under Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick moved northeastward, on November 24, 1864, to destroy the railroad midway between Augusta and Millen, burn the trestle near Briar Creek and, if possible, release Union prisoners confined at Camp Lawton, near Millen, while feigning a drive towards Augusta. Confederate Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler was fooled and concentrated his cavalry forces around Augusta. When Kilpatrick did not show, Wheeler realized his mistake and rode off in an attempt to catch his Union counterpart. On the 26th, Wheeler caught up with two lagging Union regiments, attacked their camp, chased them to the larger force and prevented Kilpatrick from destroying the Briar Creek trestle. Kilpatrick instead destroyed a mile of track in the area and moved southwest to join up with Sherman. Kilpatrick also discovered that the Union prisoners at Camp Lawton had been taken to other unknown sites. He encamped near Buck Head Creek on the night of the 27th. Wheeler came along the next morning, almost captured Kilpatrick, and pursued him and his men to Buck Head Creek. As Kilpatrick’s main force crossed the creek, one regiment, supported by artillery, fought a rearguard action severely punishing Wheeler and then burned the bridge behind them. Wheeler soon crossed and followed, but a Union brigade behind barricades at Reynolds’s Plantation halted the Rebels drive, eventually forcing them to retire.

Result(s): Union victory


Waynesborough

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Burke County

Campaign: Savannah Campaign (1864)

Date(s): December 4, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. H. Judson Kilpatrick [US]; Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3rd Cavalry Division, Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Cavalry Command, Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 440 total (US 190; CS 250)

Description: As Sherman’s infantry marched southeast through Georgia, his cavalry under Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick rode northeastward. He set out on the morning of December 4 to attack Waynesborough and destroy Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry command. That morning Kilpatrick’s men advanced, driving the Rebel skirmishers in front of them. The Union force then came up against a defensive line of barricades which they eventually overran. As the Union advance continued, they met more barricades which required time to overcome. Finally, the Confederates fell back to a final line of barricades within the town. After furious fighting, the Union troops broke through and Wheeler’s force ran.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort McAllister II

Civil War Battles in Georgia

Other Names: None

Location: Bryan County

Campaign: Savannah Campaign (1864)

Date(s): December 13, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. William B. Hazen [US]; Maj. George A. Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Division, XV Corps, Army of the Tennessee [US]; Fort McAllister Garrison (120 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 205 total (US 134; CS 71)

Description: As Sherman’s troops approached Savannah they sorely required supplies. Sherman determined that if he could take Fort McAllister, supply ships could reach him. Thus, he ordered Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard, commander of his right wing, to take the fort. Howard chose Brig. Gen. William B. Hazen to accomplish the task. Hazen, in the afternoon of December 13, had his men in line for the attack. Upon giving the order to attack, his men rushed forward through the various obstacles prepared for them, entered the fort, and captured it. With his supply line open, Sherman could now prepare for the siege and capture of Savannah.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Georgia2019-07-25T20:48:01-04:00

Civil War Battles in Mississippi

All Civil War battles in Mississippi. They are in the order in which they occurred during the war.

Civil War Battles in Mississippi

Civil War Battles in Mississippi


Iuka

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Tishomingo County

Campaign: Iuka and Corinth Operations (1862)

Date(s): September 19, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans [US]; Maj. Gen. Sterling Price [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Division and cavalry division, Army of the Mississippi (approx. 4,000-4,500) [US]; 1st Division, Army of the West (approx. 3,200) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,482 total (US 782; CS 700)

Description:Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s Army of the West main column marched into Iuka, Mississippi, on September 14. Price’s superior, Gen. Braxton Bragg, the commander of the Confederate Army of the Mississippi, who was leading an offensive deep into Kentucky, ordered him to prevent Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans’s Army of the Mississippi troops from moving into Middle Tennessee and reinforcing Brig. Gen. James Negley’s division of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell’s Army of the Ohio, which was garrisoning Nashville. Price had about 14,000 men, and he was informed that, if necessary, he could request assistance from Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, commanding the District of the Mississippi, headquartered at Holly Springs.

Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, commanding the Army of the Tennessee, feared that Price intended to go north to join Bragg against Buell. Grant devised a plan for his left wing commander, Maj. Gen. E.O.C. Ord, and his men to advance on Iuka from the west; Rosecrans’s forces were to march from the southwest, arrive at Iuka on the 18th, and make a coordinated attack the next day. Ord arrived on time and skirmishing ensued between his reconnaissance patrol and Confederate pickets, about six miles from Iuka, before nightfall.

Rosecrans informed Grant that he would not arrive at Iuka on the 18th but would begin his march at 4:30 am, the next morning. On the 19th, Ord sent Price a message demanding that he surrender, but Price refused. At the same time, Price received dispatches from Van Dorn suggesting that their two armies rendezvous, as soon as possible, at Rienzi for attacks on the Federal forces in the area. Price informed Van Dorn that the military situation had changed so he could not evacuate Iuka immediately. He did, however, issue orders for his men to prepare for a march the next day, to rendezvous with Van Dorn. Rosecrans’s army marched early on the 19th, but, instead of using two roads as directed, it followed the Jacinto (Bay Springs) Road.

After considering the amount of time that Rosecrans required to reach Iuka, Grant determined that he probably would not arrive on the 19th, so he ordered Ord to await the sound of fighting between Rosecrans and Price before engaging the Confederates. As Rosecrans advanced, his men fought actions with Confederate troops at points along the way. About 4:00 pm, just after ascending a hill, the Union column halted because the Confederates were well-placed below in a ravine, filled with timber and underbrush.

The Confederates launched attacks up the hill, capturing a six-gun Ohio battery, while the Federals counterattacked from the ridge. Fighting, which Price later stated he had never seen surpassed, continued until after dark; the Union troops camped for the night behind the ridge. Price had redeployed troops from Ord’s front to fight against Rosecrans’s people. Ord did nothing, later proclaiming that he never heard any fighting and, therefore, never engaged the enemy; Grant also remarked that he had heard no sounds of battle.

Following the fighting on the 19th, Price determined to reengage the enemy the next day, but his subordinates convinced him, instead, to march to join Van Dorn, as earlier planned. At the same time, Rosecrans redeployed his men for fighting the next day. Price’s army evacuated via the uncovered Fulton Road, protected its rear with a heavy rearguard and hooked up with Van Dorn five days later at Ripley. Although Rosecrans was supposed to traverse Fulton Road and cover it, he stated that he had not guarded the road because he feared dividing his force; Grant later approved this decision. Rosecrans’s army occupied Iuka and then mounted a pursuit; the Confederate rearguard and overgrown terrain prevented the Union pursuit from accomplishing much. The Federals should have destroyed or captured Price’s army, but instead the Rebels joined Van Dorn and assaulted Corinth in October.

Result(s): Union victory (In addition, it caused Grant to have concern about Rosecrans’s abilities and leadership.)


Corinth

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Alcorn County

Campaign: Iuka and Corinth Operations (1862)

Date(s): October 3-4, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans [US]; Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Mississippi [US]; Army of the West Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 7,197 total (US 2,359; CS 4,838)

Description: After the Battle of Iuka, Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s Confederate Army of the West marched from Baldwyn to Ripley where it joined Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn’s Army of West Tennessee. Van Dorn was senior officer and took command of the combined force numbering about 22,000 men. The Rebels marched to Pocahontas on October 1, and then moved southeast toward Corinth. They hoped to seize Corinth and then sweep into Middle Tennessee. Since the Siege of Corinth, in the spring, Union forces had erected various fortifications, an inner and intermediate line, to protect Corinth, an important transportation center. With the Confederate approach, the Federals, numbering about 23,000, occupied the outer line of fortifications and placed men in front of them.

Van Dorn arrived within three miles of Corinth at 10:00 am on October 3, and moved into some fieldworks that the Confederates had erected for the siege of Corinth. The fighting began, and the Confederates steadily pushed the Yankees rearward. A gap occurred between two Union brigades which the Confederates exploited around 1:00 pm. The Union troops moved back in a futile effort to close the gap. Price then attacked and drove the Federals back further to their inner line. By evening, Van Dorn was sure that he could finish the Federals off during the next day. This confidence–combined with the heat, fatigue, and water shortages–persuaded him to cancel any further operations that day. Rosecrans regrouped his men in the fortifications to be ready for the attack to come the next morning.

Van Dorn had planned to attack at daybreak, but Brig. Gen. Louis Hébert’s sickness postponed it till 9:00 am. As the Confederates moved forward, Union artillery swept the field causing heavy casualties, but the Rebels continued on. They stormed Battery Powell and closed on Battery Robinett, where desperate hand-to-hand fighting ensued. A few Rebels fought their way into Corinth, but the Federals quickly drove them out. The Federals continued on, recapturing Battery Powell, and forcing Van Dorn into a general retreat. Rosecrans postponed any pursuit until the next day. As a result, Van Dorn was defeated, but not destroyed or captured, at Hatchie Bridge, Tennessee, on October 5.

Result(s): Union victory


Chickasaw Bayou

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Chickasaw Bluffs, Walnut Hills

Location: Warren County

Campaign: Operations against Vicksburg (1862-1863)

Date(s): December 26-29, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Right Wing, XIII Army Corps [US]; Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,983 total (US 1,776; CS 207)

Description: On December 26, 1862, three Union divisions, under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, disembarked at Johnson’s Plantation on the Yazoo River to approach the Vicksburg defenses from the northeast while a fourth landed farther upstream on the 27th. On the 27th, the Federals pushed their lines forward through the swamps toward Walnut Hills, which were strongly defended. On the 28th, several futile attempts were made to get around these defenses. On December 29, Sherman ordered a frontal assault which was repulsed with heavy casualties. Sherman then withdrew. This Confederate victory frustrated Grant’s attempts to take Vicksburg by direct approach.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Grand Gulf

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Claiborne County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): April 29, 1863

Principal Commanders: Rear Adm. David D. Porter [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen [CS]

Forces Engaged: Mississippi Squadron and Companies A,B,D,F,G,H,K, 58th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment [US]; Bowen’s Division and attached troops [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 80; CS unknown)

Description: Rear Adm. David D. Porter led seven ironclads in an attack on the fortifications and batteries at Grand Gulf, with the intention of silencing the Confederate guns and then securing the area with troops of McClernand’s XIII Army Corps who were on the accompanying transports and barges. The attack by the seven ironclads began at 8:00 am and continued until about 1:30 pm. During the fight, the ironclads moved within 100 yards of the Rebel guns and silenced the lower batteries of Fort Wade; the Confederate upper batteries at Fort Cobun remained out of reach and continued to fire.

The Union ironclads (one of which, the Tuscumbia, had been put out of action) and the transports drew off. After dark, however, the ironclads engaged the Rebel guns again while the steamboats and barges ran the gauntlet. Grant marched his men overland across Coffee Point to below the Gulf. After the transports had passed Grand Gulf, they embarked the troops at Disharoon’s plantation and disembarked them on the Mississippi shore at Bruinsburg, below Grand Gulf. The men immediately began marching overland towards Port Gibson. The Confederates had won a hollow victory; the loss at Grand Gulf caused just a slight change in Grant’s offensive.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Snyder’s Bluff

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Snyder’s Mill

Location: Warren County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): April 29-May 1, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Brig. Gen. Louis Hébert [CS]

Forces Engaged: XV Army Corps, Department of the Tennessee [US]; Hébert’s Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: To insure that troops were not withdrawn to Grand Gulf to assist Confederates there, a combined Union army-navy force feigned an attack on Snyder’s Bluff, Mississippi. After noon, on April 29th, Lt. Cdr. K. Randolph Breese, with his eight gunboats and ten transports carrying Maj. Gen. Francis Blair’s division, inched up the Yazoo River to the mouth of Chickasaw Bayou where they spent the night. At 9:00 am, the next morning, the force, minus one gunboat, continued upriver to Drumgould’s Bluff and engaged the enemy batteries. During the fighting, Choctaw suffered more than fifty hits, but no casualties occurred.

Around 6:00 pm, the troops disembarked and marched along Blake’s Levee toward the guns. As they neared Drumgould’s Bluff, a battery opened on them, creating havoc and casualties. The Union advance halted and, after dark, the men reembarked on the transports. The next morning, transports disembarked other troops. The swampy terrain and enemy heavy artillery fire forced them to retire. The gunboats opened fire again, about 3:00 pm on the 1st, causing some damage. Later, the boats fire slackened and stopped altogether after dark. Sherman had received orders to land his troops at Milliken’s Bend, so the gunboats returned to their anchorages at the mouth of the Yazoo.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Port Gibson

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Thompson’s Hill

Location: Claiborne County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 1, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee (comprising two corps) [US]; Confederate forces in area (one reinforced division: four brigades) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,648 total (US 861; CS 787)

Description: Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant launched his march on Vicksburg in the Spring of 1863, starting his army south, from Milliken’s Bend, on the west side of the Mississippi River. He intended to cross the river at Grand Gulf, but the Union fleet was unable to silence the Confederate big guns there. Grant then marched farther south and crossed at Bruinsburg on April 30. Union forces came ashore, secured the landing area and, by late afternoon, began marching inland. Advancing on the Rodney Road towards Port Gibson, Grant’s force ran into Rebel outposts after midnight and skirmished with them for around three hours. After 3:00 am, the fighting stopped. Union forces advanced on the Rodney Road and a plantation road at dawn. At 5:30 am, the Confederates engaged the Union advance and the battle ensued. Federals forced the Rebels to fall back. The Confederates established new defensive positions at different times during the day but they could not stop the Union onslaught and left the field in the early evening. This defeat demonstrated that the Confederates were unable to defend the Mississippi River line and the Federals had secured their beachhead. The way to Vicksburg was open.

Result(s): Union victory


Raymond

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Hinds County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 12, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson [US]; Brig. Gen. John Gregg [CS]

Forces Engaged: XVII Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee [US]; Gregg’s Task Force (equivalent to a brigade) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,011 total (US 442; CS 569)

Description: Ordered by Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, Confederate commander at Vicksburg, Brig. Gen. John Gregg led his force from Port Hudson, Louisiana, to Jackson, Mississippi, and out to Raymond to intercept approaching Union troops. Before dawn on May 12, Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson had his XVII Army Corps on the march, and by 10:00 am they were about three miles from Raymond. Gregg decided to dispute the crossing of Fourteen Mile Creek and arrayed his men and artillery accordingly. As the Yankees approached, the Rebels opened fire, initially causing heavy casualties. Some Union troops broke, but Maj. Gen. John A. Logan rallied a force to hold the line. Confederate troops attacked the line but had to retire. More Yankees arrived and the Union force counterattacked. Heavy fighting ensued that continued for six hours, but the overwhelming Union force prevailed. Gregg’s men left the field. Although Gregg’s men lost the battle, they had held up a much superior Union force for a day.

Result(s): Union victory


Jackson

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Hinds County and Jackson County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 14, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Brig. Gen. John Gregg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee [US]; Jackson Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,136 total (US 286; CS 850)

Description: On May 9, 1863, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston received a dispatch from the Confederate Secretary of War directing him to proceed at once to Mississippi and take chief command of the forces in the field. As he arrived in Jackson on the 13th, from Middle Tennessee, he learned that two army corps from the Union Army of the Tennessee the XV, under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, and the XVII, under Maj. Gen. James Birdseye McPherson were advancing on Jackson, intending to cut the city and the railroads off from Vicksburg. Johnston consulted with the local commander, Brig. Gen. John Gregg, and learned that only about 6,000 troops were available to defend the town. Johnston ordered the evacuation of Jackson, but Gregg was to defend Jackson until the evacuation was completed.

By 10:00 am, both Union army corps were near Jackson and had engaged the enemy. Rain, Confederate resistance, and poor defenses prevented heavy fighting until around 11:00 am, when Union forces attacked in numbers and slowly but surely pushed the enemy back. In mid-afternoon, Johnston informed Gregg that the evacuation was complete and that he should disengage and follow. Soon after, the Yankees entered Jackson and had a celebration, hosted by Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant who had been travelling with Sherman’s corps, in the Bowman House. They then burned part of the town and cut the railroad connections with Vicksburg. Johnston’s evacuation of Jackson was a tragedy because he could, by late on the 14th, have had 11,000 troops at his disposal and by the morning of the 15th, another 4,000. The fall of the former Mississippi state capital was a blow to Confederate morale.

Result(s): Union victory


Champion Hill

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Bakers Creek

Location: Hinds County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 16, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee (three corps) [US]; Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 6,757 total (US 2,457; CS 4,300)

Description: Following the Union occupation of Jackson, Mississippi, both Confederate and Federal forces made plans for future operations. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston retreated, with most of his army, up the Canton Road, but he ordered Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, commanding about 23,000 men, to leave Edwards Station and attack the Federals at Clinton. Pemberton and his generals felt that Johnston’s plan was dangerous and decided instead to attack the Union supply trains moving from Grand Gulf to Raymond. On May 16, though, Pemberton received another order from Johnston repeating his former directions. Pemberton had already started after the supply trains and was on the Raymond-Edwards Road with his rear at the crossroads one-third mile south of the crest of Champion Hill.

Thus, when he ordered a countermarch, his rear, including his many supply wagons, became the advance of his force. On May 16, 1863, about 7:00 am, the Union forces engaged the Confederates and the Battle of Champion Hill began. Pemberton’s force drew up into a defensive line along a crest of a ridge overlooking Jackson Creek. Pemberton was unaware that one Union column was moving along the Jackson Road against his unprotected left flank. For protection, Pemberton posted Brig. Gen. Stephen D. Lee’s men atop Champion Hill where they could watch for the reported Union column moving to the crossroads. Lee spotted the Union troops and they soon saw him. If this force was not stopped, it would cut the Rebels off from their Vicksburg base. Pemberton received warning of the Union movement and sent troops to his left flank. Union forces at the Champion House moved into action and emplaced artillery to begin firing. When Grant arrived at Champion Hill, around 10:00 am, he ordered the attack to begin.

By 11:30 am, Union forces had reached the Confederate main line and about 1:00 pm, they took the crest while the Rebels retired in disorder. The Federals swept forward, capturing the crossroads and closing the Jackson Road escape route. One of Pemberton’s divisions (Bowen’s) then counterattacked, pushing the Federals back beyond the Champion Hill crest before their surge came to a halt. Grant then counterattacked, committing forces that had just arrived from Clinton by way of Bolton. Pemberton’s men could not stand up to this assault, so he ordered his men from the field to the one escape route still open: the Raymond Road crossing of Bakers Creek. Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman’s brigade formed the rearguard, and they held at all costs, including the loss of Tilghman. In the late afternoon, Union troops seized the Bakers Creek Bridge, and by midnight, they occupied Edwards. The Confederates were in full retreat towards Vicksburg. If the Union forces caught these Rebels, they would destroy them.

Result(s): Union victory


Big Black River Bridge

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Big Black

Location: Hinds County and Warren County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 17, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen [CS]

Forces Engaged: XIII Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee [US]; Bridgehead Defense Force (three brigades) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,273 total (US 273; CS 2,000)

Description: Reeling from their defeat at Champion Hill, the Confederates reached Big Black River Bridge, the night of May 16-17. Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton ordered Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen, with three brigades, to man the fortifications on the east bank of the river and impede any Union pursuit. Three divisions of Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand’s XIII Army Corps moved out from Edwards Station on the morning of the 17th. The corps encountered the Confederates behind breastworks and took cover as enemy artillery began firing. Union Brig. Gen. Michael K. Lawler formed his 2nd Brigade, Carr’s Division, which surged out of a meander scar, across the front of the Confederate forces, and into the enemy’s breastworks, held by Vaughn’s East Tennessee Brigade. Confused and panicked, the Rebels began to withdraw across the Big Black on two bridges: the railroad bridge and the steamboat dock moored athwart the river. As soon as they had crossed, the Confederates set fire to the bridges, preventing close Union pursuit. The fleeing Confederates who arrived in Vicksburg later that day were disorganized. The Union forces captured approximately 1,800 troops at Big Black, a loss that the Confederates could ill-afford. This battle sealed Vicksburg’s fate: the Confederate force wasbottled up at Vicksburg.

Result(s): Union victory


Vicksburg

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Warren County

Campaign: Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 18-July 4, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee [US]; Army of Vicksburg [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 19,233 total (US 10,142; CS 9,091)

Description: In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations. This was the culmination of one of the most brilliant military campaigns of the war. With the loss of Pemberton’s army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half. Grant’s successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.

Result(s): Union victory


Meridian

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Lauderdale County

Campaign: Meridian and Yazoo River Expeditions (1864)

Date(s): February 14-20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of the Tennessee [US]; Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: From Vicksburg, Mississippi, Sherman launched a campaign to take the important railroad center at Meridian and, if the situation was favorable, push on to Selma, Alabama, and threaten Mobile. Sherman ordered Brig. Gen. William Sooy Smith to lead a cavalry force of 7,000 men from Memphis, Tennessee, on February 1, 1864, south through Okolona, along the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, and meet the rest of the Union force at Meridian. With the main force of 20,000 men, Sherman set out on the 3rd for Meridian, but made feints toward various other locations.

To counter the threat, Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered troops to the area from other localities. The Confederate commander in the area, Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk, consolidated a number of commands in and around Mortona, but lost his nerve and retreated rapidly eastward. Cavalry units commanded by Maj. Gen. Stephen D. Lee periodically skirmished with Sherman’s force. As Sherman approached Meridian, he met stiffer resistance from combined forces but steadily moved on. Polk finally realized that he could not stop Sherman and evacuated Meridian on the 14th, removing some railroad rolling stock to McDowell’s Bluff. Sherman’s troops entered Meridian the same day and began destroying railroad track, continuing their work until the 19th. Smith never arrived at Meridian. Sherman left Meridian on the 20th, headed west by way of Canton, looking for Smith and his force. He did not discover what happened to Smith until he arrived back at Vicksburg (see Okolona, #MS013). Sherman had destroyed some important Confederate transportation facilities but had to forget his aspirations for continuing into Alabama.

Result(s): Union victory


Okolona

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Chickasaw County

Campaign: Meridian and Yazoo River Expeditions (1864)

Date(s): February 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. William Sooy Smith [US]; Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Cavalry force (7,000) [US]; Forrest’s Cavalry Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 150 total (US 100; CS 50)

Description: From Vicksburg, Mississippi, Sherman launched a campaign to take the important railroad center at Meridian, Mississippi, and if the situation were favorable, to push on to Selma, Alabama, and threaten Mobile. Sherman ordered Brig. Gen. William Sooy Smith to lead a cavalry force of 7,000 men from Memphis, Tennessee, on February 1, 1864, south through Okolona, along the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, and to meet the rest of the Union force at Meridian, on February 10. With the main force of approximately 20,000 men, Sherman set out on the 3rd for Meridian, but made feints on various other locations.

Against orders, Smith delayed ten days, while waiting for reinforcements, and did not start out until February 11. Destroying crops and railroad track along the way, Smith’s force met almost no opposition, and, before long, 1,000 former slaves were traveling with them. Smith was supposed to rendezvous with Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman at Meridian on the 10th, but he never arrived there. Sherman left Meridian on the 20th, due in part to apprehension over Smith’s whereabouts. Smith neared West Point, 90 miles north of Meridian, on the 20th, and he fought with Confederate cavalry units at Prairie Station and Aberdeen. Smith knowing that Nathan Bedford Forrest commanded the troops he was fighting, concerned about the fate of the former slaves with him, and not knowing how many of the enemy he faced decided to concentrate at Prairie Station, and, on the morning of the 21st, he set out for West Point. Shortly after dawn on the 21st, Col. Jeffrey Forrest’s Confederate cavalry brigade engaged Smith.

Withdrawing at times, Forrest drew Smith into a swamp west of the Tombigbee River. Other Rebel troops arrived and the fighting intensified. Smith was sure that this was a trap set for him, and, discerning that he was greatly outnumbered, he ordered a retreat, leaving a rearguard. The rearguard held off the Confederates for about two hours before withdrawing in good order. About the same time, Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest arrived and ordered a pursuit. Skirmishing occurred the rest of the day. At sunup on the 22nd, the Rebels attacked Smith just south of Okolona on the prairie. More Confederate troops arrived, causing breaks in the Union battle line, precipitating a retreat. For most of the rest of the day, they engaged in a running battle for a distance of eleven miles, with both sides attacking and counterattacking.

Col. Forrest was killed during one Rebel charge. The Yankees finally broke off the fighting and headed for Pontotoc. Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, the commander on the field, realized that his men were nearly out of ammunition and did not order a pursuit. Mississippi militia harassed Smith to the state line. Smith arrived in Collierville, Tennessee, near Memphis, on the 26th. Although Smith had caused much destruction during his expedition, Okolona forced him to retire before he could do more. Smith’s actions against Sherman’s orders jeopardized the Meridian Expedition.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Brice’s Cross Roads

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Tishomingo Creek

Location: Prentiss County and Union County

Campaign: Forrest’s Defense of Mississippi (1864)

Date(s): June 10, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis [US]; Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Three-brigade division of infantry and a division of cavalry (about 8,500 ) [US]; cavalry corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,105 total (US 2,610; CS 495)

Description: At the beginning of June 1864, Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest set out with his cavalry corps of about 2,000 men to enter Middle Tennessee and destroy the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, which was carrying men and supplies to Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman in Georgia. On June 10, 1864, Forrest’s smaller Confederate force defeated a much larger Union column under Brig. Gen. Samuel Sturgis at Brice’s Cross Roads. This brilliant tactical victory against long odds cemented Forrest’s reputation as one of the foremost mounted infantry leaders of the war.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Tupelo

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: Harrisburg

Location: Lee County

Campaign: Forrest’s Defense of Mississippi (1864)

Date(s): July 14-15, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith [US]; Lt. Gen. Stephen D. Lee and Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: 1st and 3rd Infantry Divisions and Cavalry Division, XVI Army Corps, and 1st Brigade, U.S. Colored Troops (14,000) [US]; Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,948 total (US 648; CS 1,300)

Description: Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith, commanding a combined force of more than 14,000 men, left LaGrange, Tennessee, on July 5, 1864, and advanced south. Smith’s mission was to insure that Maj. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest and his cavalry did not raid Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s railroad lifeline in Middle Tennessee and, thereby, prevent supplies from reaching him in his campaign against Atlanta. Laying waste to the countryside as he advanced, Smith reached Pontotoc, Mississippi, on July 11. Forrest was in nearby Okolona with about 6,000 men, but his commander, Lt. Gen. Stephen D. Lee, told him he could not attack until he was reinforced. Two days later, Smith, fearing an ambush, moved east toward Tupelo. On the previous day, Lee arrived near Pontotoc with 2,000 additional men and, under his command, the entire Confederate force engaged Smith. Within two miles of the Federals, on the night of the 13th, Lee ordered an attack for the next morning. Lee attacked at 7:30 am the next morning in a number of uncoordinated assaults which the Yankees beat back, causing heavy casualties. Lee halted the fighting after a few hours. Short on rations, Smith did not pursue but started back to Memphis on the 15th. Criticized for not destroying Forrest’s command, Smith had caused much damage and had fulfilled his mission of insuring Sherman’s supply lines.

Result(s): Union victory


Corinth

Civil War battles in Mississippi

Other Names: None

Location: Hardin County and McNairy County, Tennessee; Alcorn County and Tishomingo County, Mississippi

Campaign: Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers (1862)

Date(s): April 29-June 10, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck [US]; Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of the Mississippi [US]; Department No. 2 [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Following the Union victory at Shiloh, the Union armies under Maj. Gen. Henry Halleck advanced on the vital rail center of Corinth. By May 25, 1862, after moving 5 miles in 3 weeks, Halleck was in position to lay siege to the town. The preliminary bombardment began, and Union forces maneuvered for position. On the evening of May 29-30, Confederate commander Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard evacuated Corinth, withdrawing to Tupelo. The Federals had consolidated their position in northern Mississippi.

Result(s): Union victory, although the raid ultimately failed.

Civil War Battles in Mississippi2019-07-25T20:41:14-04:00

Civil War Battles in Florida

The state of Florida did not see much fighting during the war.

The largest battle fought was the battle of Olustee fought in 1864.

This was a Confederate victory, however the southerners did not take advantage of this victory and allowed the retreating Union forces to escape.

I think one of the most interesting events that occured in Florida was at Tampa. One Union gunboat arrived in the bay and demanded the surrender of the entire town.

After firing a few shots at Tampa the gunboat withdrew leaving the town in Confederate hands.

Below is a list of all Civil War battles in Florida.

They are in the order in which they occurred during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in Florida

Civil War Battles in Florida


Santa Rosa Island

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: None

Location: Escambia County

Campaign: Operations of Gulf Blockading Squadron (1861)

Date(s): October 9, 1861

Principal Commanders: Col. Harvey Brown [US]; Confederate Brig. Gen. Richard H. Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Santa Rosa Island Garrison (approx. 600 men) [US]; infantry and artillery detachments (approx. 1,000 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 154 total (US 67; CS 87)

Description: After midnight on October 9, Brig. Gen. Richard Anderson crossed from the mainland to Santa Rosa Island with 1,000 men in two small steamers to surprise Union camps and capture Fort Pickens. He landed on the north beach about four miles east of Fort Pickens and divided his command into three columns. After proceeding about three miles, the Confederates surprised the 6th Regiment, New York Volunteers, in its camp and routed the regiment. Col. Harvey Brown sallied against the Confederates, who reembarked and returned to the mainland.

Result(s): Union victory


Tampa

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: Yankee Outrage at Tampa

Location: City of Tampa

Campaign: Operations against Tampa (June-July 1862)

Date(s): June 30-July 1, 1862

Principal Commanders: Capt. A.J. Drake [US]; Capt. J.W. Pearson [CS]

Forces Engaged: One gunboat [US]; Osceola Rangers, company [CS]

Estimated Casualties: None

Description: On June 30, a Union gunboat came into Tampa Bay, turned her broadside on the town, and opened her ports. The gunboat then dispatched a launch carrying 20 men and a lieutenant under a flag of truce demanding the surrender of Tampa. The Confederates refused, and the gunboat opened fire. The officer then informed the Confederates that shelling would commence at 6:00 pm after allowing time to evacuate non-combatants from the city. Firing continued sporadically into the afternoon of July 1, when the Federal gunboat withdrew.

Result(s): Confederate victory (Inconclusive, but Union gunboat withdrew.)


St. John’s Bluff

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: None

Location: Duval County

Campaign: Expedition to St. John’s Bluff (1862)

Date(s): October 1-3, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John M. Brannan [US]; Lt. Col. Charles F. Hopkins [CS]

Forces Engaged: Expeditionary Force: 2 infantry regiments, a light artillery battery and detachment of the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry (total force 1,573) [US]; a small artillery and cavalry force [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Brig. Gen. John Finegan established a battery on St. John’s Bluff near Jacksonville to stop the movement of Federal ships up the St. Johns River. Brig. Gen. John M. Brannan embarked with about 1,500 infantry aboard the transports Boston, Ben DeFord, Cosmopolitan, and Neptune at Hilton Head, South Carolina, on September 30. The flotilla arrived at the mouth of the St. John’s River on October 1, where Cdr. Charles Steedman’s gunboats, Paul Jones, Cimarron, Uncas, Patroon, Hale, and Water Witch joined them. By midday, the gunboats approached the bluff, while Brannan began landing troops at Mayport Mills. Another infantry force landed at Mount Pleasant Creek, about five miles in the rear of the Confederate battery, and began marching overland on the 2nd. Outmaneuvered, Lt. Col. Charles F. Hopkins abandoned the position after dark. When the gunboats approached the bluff the next day, its guns were silent.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Brooke

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: None

Location: Tampa

Campaign: Expedition to Hillsborough River (1863)

Date(s): October 16-18, 1863

Principal Commanders: Lt. Comdr. A.A. Semmes [US];Capt. John Westcott [CS]

Forces Engaged: Tahoma, Adela, and landing force [US]; Company A, 2nd Battalion, Florida Volunteers [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Two Union ships bombarded Fort Brooke on October 16 as a diversion, while a landing party under Acting Master T.R. Harris disembarked at Ballast Point and marched 14 miles to the Hillsborough River to capture several steamers. Harris and his men surprised and captured the blockade running steamer Scottish Chief and sloop Kate Dale. The Rebels destroyed the steamer A.B. Noyes to preclude her capture. On its way back to the ship, Harris’s force was surprised by a detachment of the garrison, causing casualties.

Result(s): Union victory


Olustee

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: Ocean Pond

Location: Baker County

Campaign: Florida Expedition (1864)

Date(s): February 20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Truman Seymour [US]; Brig. Gen. Joseph Finegan [CS]

Forces Engaged: Division [US]; District of East Florida [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,806 total (US 1,860; CS 946)

Description: In February 1864, the commander of the Department of the South, Maj. Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore, launched an expedition into Florida to secure Union enclaves, sever Rebel supply routes, and recruit black soldiers. Brig. Gen. Truman Seymour moved deep into the state, occupying, destroying, and liberating, meeting little resistance on February 20, he approached Brig. Gen. Joseph Finegan’s 5,000 Confederates entrenched near Olustee. One infantry brigade pushed out to meet Seymour’s advance units. The Union forces attacked but were repulsed. The battle raged, and as Finegan committed the last of his reserves, the Union line broke and began to retreat. Finegan did not exploit the retreat, allowing most of the fleeing Union forces to reach Jacksonville.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Natural Bridge

Civil War Battles in Florida

Other Names: None

Location: Leon County

Campaign: Operations near St. Marks, Florida (1865)

Date(s): March 6, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Newton [US]; Maj. Gen. Sam Jones [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd U.S. Colored Infantry and 99th U.S. Colored Infantry [US]; Kilcrease Artillery; Dunham’s Battery; Abell’s Battery; 5th Florida Cavalry; 1st Florida Militia; Barwick’s Company Reserves; Hodges Company Reserves; Company A, Milton Light Artillery; Companies A, B, and F, Reserves and reinforcements from Georgia amounting to approx. 1,000 men [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 174 (US 148; CS 26)

Description: Maj. Gen. John Newton had undertaken a joint force expedition to engage and destroy Confederate troops that had attacked at Cedar Keys and Fort Myers and were allegedly encamped somewhere around St. Marks. The Navy had trouble getting its ships up the St. Marks River. The Army force, however, had advanced and, after finding one bridge destroyed, started before dawn on March 6 to attempt to cross the river at Natural Bridge. The troops initially pushed Rebel forces back but not away from the bridge. Confederate forces, protected by breastworks, guarded all of the approaches and the bridge itself. The action at Natural Bridge lasted most of the day, but, unable to take the bridge, the Union troops retreated to the protection of the fleet.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Civil War Battles in Florida2019-07-25T20:48:46-04:00

Civil War Battles in Ohio

All Civil War battles in Ohio. They are listed in the order that they occurred.

Civil War Battles in Ohio

Civil War Battles in Ohio


Buffington Island

Other Names: St. Georges Creek

Location: Meigs County

Campaign: Morgan’s Raid in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio (July 1863)

Date(s): July 19, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Edward H. Hobson [US]; Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades: 4,700 total (US 3,000; CS 1,700)

Estimated Casualties: 925 total (US 25; CS 900)

Description: On July 13, Morgan’s raiders crossed into Ohio at Harrison, pursued by several columns of Union cavalry under overall direction of Brig. Gen. Edward H. Hobson. On July 19, Kautz’s and Judah’s brigades attacked Morgan near Buffington Island. During the night, Morgan and about 400 men escaped encirclement by following a narrow woods path. The rest of his force surrendered.

Result(s): Union victory


Salineville

Other Names: New Lisbon, New Lisbon Road, Wellsville

Location: Columbiana County

Campaign: Morgan’s Raid in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio (July 1863)

Date(s): July 26, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. James Shackelford [US]; Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3,000 total (US 2,600; CS 400)

Estimated Casualties: 364 total (US none; CS 364)

Description: After escaping encirclement at Buffington’s Island with about 400 of his men, Morgan continued east and north, attempting to find a safe crossing over the Ohio River. With several columns of Union cavalry in hot pursuit, Morgan passed through Salineville, riding down the railroad toward Smith’s Ford. Turning onto the New Lisbon Road, Morgan’s raiders were finally cut off. Morgan surrendered. During this raid, Morgan and his men captured and paroled about 6,000 Union soldiers and militia, destroyed 34 bridges, disrupted the railroads at more than 60 places, and diverted tens of thousands of troops from other duties.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Ohio2019-07-25T20:37:15-04:00

Civil War Battles in Virginia 1862

Civil War Battles in Virginia 1862

They are in the order in which they occurred during the Civil War.

Since Virginia saw the most battles during the Civil War I have broken them down by each year.

Civil War Battles in Virginia in 1862

Civil War Battles in Virginia in 1862


Cockpit Point

Other Names: Batteries at Evansport, Freestone Point, Shipping Point

Location: Prince William County

Campaign: Blockade of the Potomac River (1861-62)

Date(s): January 3, 1862

Principal Commanders: Lt. R.H. Wyman [US]; Brig. Gen. S.G. French [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two gunboats [US]; battery garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: None

Description: After victory at First Manassas, the Confederate army established a defensive line from Centreville along the Occoquan River to the Potomac River. In October, the Confederates constructed batteries at Evansport, Freestone Point, Shipping Point, and Cockpit Point to close the Potomac River to shipping and isolate Washington.

By mid-December, the Confederates had 37 heavy guns in position along the river. On January 3, Cockpit Point was shelled by Anacostia and Yankee with neither side gaining an advantage. Union ships approached the point again on March 9 but discovered that the Confederates had abandoned their works and retired closer to Richmond, after effectively sealing off the Potomac River for nearly five months.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Hampton Roads

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Monitor vs. Virginia (Merrimack), Battle of the Ironclads

Location: Hampton Roads

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): March 8-9, 1862

Principal Commanders: Lt. John Worden [US]; Capt. Franklin Buchanan and Lt. Catesby R. Jones [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4 warships [US]; 1 warship [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 433 total (US 409; CS 24)

Description: On March 8, 1862, from her berth at Norfolk, the Confederate ironclad Virginia steamed into Hampton Roads where she sank Cumberland and ran Congress aground. On March 9, the Union ironclad Monitor having fortuitously arrived to do battle, initiated the first engagement of ironclads in history. The two ships fought each other to a standstill, but Virginia retired.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Kernstown, First

Other Names: None

Location: Frederick County and Winchester

Campaign: Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1862)

Date(s): March 23, 1862

Principal Commanders: Col. Nathan Kimball [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 12,300 total (US 8,500; CS 3,800)

Estimated Casualties: 1,308 total (US 590; CS 718)

Description: Relying on faulty intelligence that reported the Union garrison at Winchester numbered only about 3,000, Stonewall Jackson marched aggressively north with his 3,400-man division. The 8,500 Federals, commanded by Col. Nathan Kimball, stopped Jackson at Kernstown and then counterattacked turning Jackson’s left flank and forcing him to retreat. Despite this Union victory, President Lincoln was disturbed by Jackson’s threat to Washington and redirected substantial reinforcements to the Valley, depriving McClellan’s army of these troops. McClellan claimed that the additional troops would have enabled him to take Richmond during his Peninsula campaign.

Result(s): Union victory


Yorktown

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: None

Location: York County and Newport News

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): April 5-May 4, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder and Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 320 total

Description: Marching from Fort Monroe, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s army encountered Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder’s small Confederate army at Yorktown behind the Warwick River. Magruder’s theatrics convinced the Federals that his works were strongly held. McClellan suspended the march up the Peninsula toward Richmond, ordered the construction of siege fortifications, and brought his heavy siege guns to the front. In the meantime, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston brought reinforcements for Magruder. On 16 April, Union forces probed a weakness in the Confederate line at Lee’s Mill or Dam No. 1, resulting in about 309 casualties.

Failure to exploit the initial success of this attack, however, held up McClellan for two additional weeks, while he tried to convince his navy to maneuver the Confederates big guns at Yorktown and Gloucester Point and ascend the York River to West Point thus outflanking the Warwick Line. McClellan planned for a massive bombardment to begin at dawn on May 4, but the Confederate army slipped away in the night toward Williamsburg.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Williamsburg

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Fort Magruder

Location: York County and Williamsburg

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): May 5, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Maj. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: 72,591 total (US 40,768;CS 31,823)

Estimated Casualties: 3,843 total (US 2,283; CS 1,560)

Description: In the first pitched battle of the Peninsula Campaign, nearly 41,000 Federals and 32,000 Confederates were engaged. Following up the Confederate retreat from Yorktown, Hooker’s division encountered the Confederate rearguard near Williamsburg. Hooker assaulted Fort Magruder, an earthen fortification alongside the Williamsburg Road, but was repulsed. Confederate counterattacks, directed by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet, threatened to overwhelm the Union left flank, until Kearny’s division arrived to stabilize the Federal position. Hancock’s brigade then moved to threaten the Confederate left flank, occupying two abandoned redoubts. The Confederates counterattacked unsuccessfully. Hancock’s localized success was not exploited. The Confederate army continued its withdrawal during the night.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Eltham’s Landing

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Barhamsville, West Point

Location: New Kent County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): May 7, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin [US]; Maj. Gen. Gustavius W. Smith [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 242 total (US 194; CS 48)

Description: Franklin’s Union division landed at Eltham’s Landing and was attacked by two brigades of Smith’s command, reacting to the threat to the Confederate army’s trains on the Barhamsville Road. Franklin’s movement occurred while the Confederate army was withdrawing from the Williamsburg line.

Result(s): Inconclusive


McDowell

Other Names: Sitlington’s Hill

Location: Highland County

Campaign: Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1862)

Date(s): May 8, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy and Brig. Gen. Robert Schenck [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 12,500 total (US 6,500; CS 6,000)

Estimated Casualties: 720 (surgeon’s list reports 556)

Description: From Staunton, Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson marched his army west along the Parkersburg Road to confront two brigades of Frémont’s force (Milroy and Schenck), advancing toward the Shenandoah Valley from western Virginia. At McDowell on May 8, Milroy seized the initiative and assaulted the Confederate position on Sitlington’s Hill. The Federals were repulsed after severe fighting, lasting four hours. Afterwards, Milroy and Schenck withdrew into western Virginia, freeing up Jackson’s army to march against the other Union columns threatening the Valley.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Drewry’s Bluff

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Fort Darling, Fort Drewry

Location: Chesterfield County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): May 15, 1862

Principal Commanders: Cdr. John Rodgers [US]; Cdr. E. Farrand, Brig. Gen. William Mahone, Capt. S. S. Lee, andLt. John Taylor Wood [CS]

Forces Engaged: 5 gunboats [US]; battery garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 41 total

Description: With the fall of Yorktown, the Confederate ironclad Virginia at Norfolk was scuttled to prevent her capture. This opened the James River to Federal gunboats. On May 15, five gunboats, including the ironclads Monitor and Galena, steamed up the James to test the Richmond defenses. They encountered submerged obstacles and deadly accurate fire from the batteries at Drewry’s Bluff, which inflicted severe damage on the Galena. The Federal Navy was turned back.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Front Royal

Other Names: Guard Hill, Cedarville

Location: Warren County

Campaign: Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1862)

Date(s): May 23, 1862

Principal Commanders: Col. John R. Kenly [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4,063 total (US 1,063; CS 3,000)

Estimated Casualties: 960 total (US 904; CS 56)

Description: On May 23, Confederate forces, spearheaded by the Louisiana Tigers and the 1st Maryland, surprised and overran the pickets of a 1,000-man Union garrison under Col. Kenly at Front Royal. Driven through the town, the Federals made a stand on Camp Hill and again at Guard Hill after attempting to fire the river bridges. Outnumbered and outflanked, Kenly continued the retreat to Cedarville, where two cavalry charges led by Maj. Flournoy broke the roadblock and routed the Union force. Nearly 900 Federals surrendered. Jackson’s victory at Front Royal forced the Union army under Banks at Strasburg into a rapid retreat towards Winchester.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Winchester, First

Other Names: Bowers Hill

Location: Frederick County and Winchester

Campaign: Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1862)

Date(s): May 25, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 22,500 total (US 6,500; CS 16,000)

Estimated Casualties: 2,419 total (US 2,019; CS 400)

Description: After skirmishing with Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks’s retreating army at Middletown and Newtown on May 24, Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson’s division continued north on the Valley Pike toward Winchester. There, Banks was attempting to reorganize his army to defend the town. Ewell’s division converged on Winchester from the southeast using the Front Royal Pike. On May 25, Ewell attacked Camp Hill, while the Louisiana Brigade of Jackson’s division outflanked and overran the Union position on Bowers Hill. Panic spread through the Federal ranks, and many fled through Winchester. Banks’s army was soundly defeated and withdrew north across the Potomac River. This was a decisive battle in Jackso’s Valley Campaign.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Hanover Court House

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Slash Church

Location: Hanover County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): May 27, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter [US]; Brig. Gen. Lawrence O’B. Branch [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,327 total (US 397; CS 930)

Description: On May 27, 1862, elements of Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter’s V Corps extended north to protect the right flank of McClellan’s Union army that now straddled the Chickahominy River. Porter’s objective was to cut the railroad and to open the Telegraph Road for Union reinforcements under Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell that were marching south from Fredericksburg. Confederate forces, attempting to prevent this maneuver, were defeated just south of Hanover Courthouse after a stiff fight. The Union victory was moot, however, for McDowell’s reinforcements were recalled to Fredericksburg upon word of Banks’s rout at First Winchester.

Result(s): Union victory


Seven Pines

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Fair Oaks, Fair Oaks Station

Location: Henrico County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): May 31-June 1, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Maj. Gen. G.W. Smith [CS]

Forces Engaged: (84,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 13,736 total (US 5,739; CS 7,997)

Description: On May 31, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston attempted to overwhelm two Federal corps that appeared isolated south of the Chickahominy River. The Confederate assaults, though not well coordinated, succeeded in driving back the IV Corps and inflicting heavy casualties. Reinforcements arrived, and both sides fed more and more troops into the action. Supported by the III Corps and Sedgwick’s division of Sumner’s II Corps (that crossed the rain-swollen river on Grapevine Bridge), the Federal position was finally stabilized.

Gen. Johnston was seriously wounded during the action, and command of the Confederate army devolved temporarily to Maj. Gen. G.W. Smith. On June 1, the Confederates renewed their assaults against the Federals who had brought up more reinforcements but made little headway. Both sides claimed victory. Confederate brigadier Robert H. Hatton was killed.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Cross Keys

Other Names: None

Location: Rockingham County

Campaign: Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (March-June 1862)

Date(s): June 8, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell [CS]

Forces Engaged: 17,300 total (US 11,500; CS 5,800)

Estimated Casualties: 951 total (US 664; CS 287)

Description: Moving up the Shenandoah Valley in pursuit of Jackson’s army, Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont’s army encountered Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s division at Cross Keys on June 8. Brig. Gen. Julius Stahel’s brigade, attacking on the Union left, was stunned by a surprise volley from Trimble’s command and driven back in confusion. After feeling out other parts of the Confederate line, Frémont withdrew to the Keezletown Road under protection of his batteries. The next day, Trimble’s and Patton’s brigades held Frémont at bay, while the rest of Ewell’s force crossed the river to assist in the defeat of Brig. Gen. E. Tyler’s command at Port Republic.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Port Republic

Other Names: None

Location: Rockingham County

Campaign: Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1862)

Date(s): June 9, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Erastus Tyler [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 9,500 total (US 3,500; CS 6,000)

Estimated Casualties: 1,818 total (US 1,002; CS 816)

Description: Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson concentrated his forces east of the South Fork of the Shenandoah against the isolated brigades of Tyler and Carroll of Shields’s division, Brig. Gen. Erastus Tyler commanding. Confederate assaults across the bottomland were repulsed with heavy casualties, but a flanking column turned the Union left flank at the Coaling.

Union counterattacks failed to reestablish the line, and Tyler was forced to retreat. Confederate forces at Cross Keys marched to join Jackson at Port Republic burning the North River Bridge behind them. Frémont’s army arrived too late to assist Tyler and Carroll and watched helplessly from across the rain-swollen river. After these dual defeats at Cross Keys and Port Republic, the Union armies retreated, leaving Jackson in control of the upper and middle Shenandoah Valley and freeing his army to reinforce Lee before Richmond.

Result(s): Confederate victory.


Oak Grove

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: French’s Field, King’s School House

Location: Henrico County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): June 25, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 1,057 total (US 516; CS 541)

Description: Oak Grove was the first of the Seven Days’ battles. On June 25, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan advanced his lines along the Williamsburg Road with the objective of bringing Richmond within range of his siege guns. Union forces attacked over swampy ground with inconclusive results, and darkness halted the fighting. McClellan’s attack was not strong enough to derail the Confederate offensive that already had been set in motion. The next day, Lee seized the initiative by attacking at Beaver Dam Creek north of the Chickahominy.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Union forces withdrew to their lines.)


Beaver Dam Creek

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Mechanicsville, Ellerson’s Mill

Location: Hanover County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): June 26, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 31,987 total (US 15,631; CS 16,356)

Estimated Casualties: 1,700 total (US 400; CS 1,300)

Description: Second of the Seven Days’ Battles. Gen. Robert E. Lee initiated his offensive against McClellan’s right flank north of the Chickahominy River. A.P. Hill threw his division, reinforced by one of D.H. Hill’s brigades, into a series of futile assaults against Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter’s V Corps, which was drawn up behind Beaver Dam Creek. Confederate attacks were driven back with heavy casualties. Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley divisions, however, were approaching from the northwest, forcing Porter to withdraw the next morning to a position behind Boatswain Creek just beyond Gaines Mill.

Result(s): Union victory


Gaines’ Mill

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: First Cold Harbor

Location: Hanover County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): June 27, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 91,232 total (US 34,214; CS 57,018)

Estimated Casualties: 15,500 total (US 6,800; CS 8,700)

Description: This was the third of the Seven Days’ Battles. On June 27, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee renewed his attacks against Porter’s V Corps, which had established a strong defensive line behind Boatswain’s Swamp north of the Chickahominy River. Porter’s reinforced V Corps held fast for the afternoon against disjointed Confederate attacks, inflicting heavy casualties. At dusk, the Confederates finally mounted a coordinated assault that broke Porter’s line and drove his soldiers back toward the river. The Federals retreated across the river during the night. Defeat at Gaines Mill convinced McClellan to abandon his advance on Richmond and begin the retreat to James River. Gaines Mill saved Richmond for the Confederacy in 1862.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Garnett’s & Golding’s Farms

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: None

Location: Henrico County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): June 27-28, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 830 total

Description: While battle raged north of the Chickahominy River at Gaines’ Mill on June 27, Magruder demonstrated against the Union line south of the river at Garnett’s Farm. To escape an artillery crossfire, the Federal defenders from Maj. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman’s III Corps refused their line along the river. The Confederates attacked again near Golding’s Farm on the morning of June 28 but were easily repulsed. These fixing actions heightened the fear in the Union high command that an all out attack would be launched against them south of the river.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Savage’s Station

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: None

Location: Henrico County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): June 29, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Edwin Sumner [US]; Maj. Gen. John Magruder [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 4,700 total (US 2,500 wounded were captured)

Description: Fourth of the Seven Days’ Battles. On June 29, the main body of the Union army began a general withdrawal toward the James River. Magruder pursued along the railroad and the Williamsburg Road and struck Sumner’s Corps (the Union rearguard) with three brigades near Savage’s Station. Confederate Brig. Gen. Richard Giffith was mortally wounded during the fight. Jackson’s divisions were stalled north of the Chickahominy. Union forces continued to withdraw across White Oak Swamp, abandoning supplies and more than 2,500 wounded soldiers in a field hospital.

Result(s): Inconclusive


White Oak Swamp

Other Names: None

Location: Henrico County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): June 30, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William Franklin [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 500 total

Description: The Union rearguard under Maj. Gen. William Franklin stopped Jackson’s divisions at the White Oak Bridge crossing, resulting in an artillery duel, while the main battle raged two miles farther south at Glendale or Frayser’s Farm. White Oak Swamp can be considered part of the Glendale engagement.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Glendale

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Nelson’s Farm, Frayser’s Farm, Charles City Crossroads, White Oak Swamp, New Market Road, Riddell’s Shop

Location: Henrico County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): June 30, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 6,500 total

Description: This is the fifth of the Seven Days’ Battles. On June 30, Huger’s, Longstreet’s, and A.P. Hill’s divisions converged on the retreating Union army in the vicinity of Glendale or Frayser’s Farm. Longstreet’s and Hill’s attacks penetrated the Union defense near Willis Church, routing McCall’s division. McCall was captured. Union counterattacks by Hooker’s and Kearny’s divisions sealed the break and saved their line of retreat along the Willis Church Road. Huger’s advance was stopped on the Charles City Road.

Stonewall Jackson’s divisions were delayed by Franklin at White Oak Swamp. Confederate Maj. Gen. T.H. Holmes made a feeble attempt to turn the Union left flank at Turkey Bridge but was driven back by Federal gunboats in James River. Union generals Meade and Sumner and Confederate generals Anderson, Pender, and Featherston were wounded. This was Lee’s best chance to cut off the Union army from the James River. That night, McClellan established a strong position on Malvern Hill.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Union withdrawal continued.)


Malvern Hill

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Poindexter’s Farm

Location: Henrico County

Campaign: Peninsula Campaign (March-September 1862)

Date(s): July 1, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 8,500 total

Description: This was the sixth and last of the Seven Days’ Battles. On July 1, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee launched a series of disjointed assaults on the nearly impregnable Union position on Malvern Hill. The Confederates suffered more than 5,300 casualties without gaining an inch of ground. Despite his victory, McClellan withdrew to entrench at Harrison’s Landing on James River, where his army was protected by gunboats. This ended the Peninsula Campaign. When McClellan’s army ceased to threaten Richmond, Lee sent Jackson to operate against Maj. Gen. John Pope’s army along the Rapidan River, thus initiating the Northern Virginia Campaign.

Result(s): Union victory


Cedar Mountain

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Slaughter’s Mountain, Cedar Run

Location: Culpeper County

Campaign: Northern Virginia Campaign (June-September 1862)

Date(s): August 9, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 24,898 total (US 8,030; CS 16,868)

Estimated Casualties: 2,707 total (US 1,400; CS 1,307)

Description: Maj. Gen. John Pope was placed in command of the newly constituted Army of Virginia on June 26. Gen. Robert E. Lee responded to Pope’s dispositions by dispatching Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson with 14,000 men to Gordonsville in July. Jackson was later reinforced by A.P. Hill’s division. In early August, Pope marched his forces south into Culpeper County with the objective of capturing the rail junction at Gordonsville. On August 9, Jackson and Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks’s corps tangled at Cedar Mountain with the Federals gaining an early advantage. A Confederate counterattack led by A.P. Hill repulsed the Federals and won the day. Confederate general William Winder was killed. This battle shifted fighting in Virginia from the Peninsula to Northern Virginia, giving Lee the initiative.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Rappahannock Station

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Waterloo Bridge, White Sulphur Springs, Lee Springs, Freeman’s Ford

Location: Culpeper County and Fauquier County

Campaign: Northern Virginia Campaign (June-September 1862)

Date(s): August 22-25, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Pope [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 225 total

Description: Early August, Lee determined that McClellan’s army was being withdrawn from the Peninsula to reinforce John Pope. He sent Longstreet from Richmond to join Jackson’s wing of the army near Gordonsville and arrived to take command himself on August 15. August 20-21, Pope withdrew to the line of the Rappahannock River.

On August 23, Stuart’s cavalry made a daring raid on Pope’s headquarters at Catlett Station, showing that the Union right flank was vulnerable to a turning movement. Over the next several days, August 22-25, the two armies fought a series of minor actions along the Rappahannock River, including Waterloo Bridge, Lee Springs, Freeman’s Ford, and Sulphur Springs, resulting in a few hundred casualties. Together, these skirmishes primed Pope’s army along the river, while Jackson’s wing marched via Thoroughfare Gap to capture Bristoe Station and destroy Federal supplies at Manassas Junction, far in the rear of Pope’s army.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Manassas Station Operations

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: None

Battles Associated with the Operations: Bristoe Station, Kettle Run, Bull Run Bridge, Union Mills

Location: Prince William County

Campaign: Northern Virginia Campaign (June-September 1862)

Date(s): August 25-27,1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. G.W. Taylor [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,100 total

Description: On the evening of August 26, after passing around Pope’s right flank via Thoroughfare Gap, Jackson’s wing of the army struck the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Bristoe Station and before daybreak August 27 marched to capture and destroy the massive Union supply depot at Manassas Junction. This surprise movement forced Pope into an abrupt retreat from his defensive line along the Rappahannock River.

On August 27, Jackson routed a Union brigade near Union Mills (Bull Run Bridge), inflicting several hundred casualties and mortally wounding Union Brig. Gen. G.W. Taylor. Ewell’s Division fought a brisk rearguard action against Hooker’s division at Kettle Run, resulting in about 600 casualties. Ewell held back Union forces until dark. During the night of August 27-28, Jackson marched his divisions north to the First Manassas battlefield, where he took position behind an unfinished railroad grade.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Thoroughfare Gap

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Chapman’s Mill

Location: Fauquier County and Prince William County

Campaign: Northern Virginia Campaign (June-September 1862)

Date(s): August 28, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. James Ricketts [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 100 total

Description: After skirmishing near Chapman’s Mill in Thoroughfare Gap, Brig. Gen. James Ricketts’s Union division was flanked by a Confederate column passing through Hopewell Gap several miles to the north and by troops securing the high ground at Thoroughfare Gap. Ricketts retired, and Longstreet’s wing of the army marched through the gap to join Jackson. This seemingly inconsequential action virtually ensured Pope’s defeat during the battles of Aug. 29-30 because it allowed the two wings of Lee’s army to unite on the Manassas battlefield. Ricketts withdrew via Gainesville to Manassas Junction.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Manassas, Second

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Manassas, Second Bull Run, Manassas Plains, Groveton, Gainesville, Brawner’s Farm

Location: Prince William County

Campaign: Northern Virginia Campaign (June-September 1862)

Date(s): August 28-30, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Pope [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee and Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 22,180 total (US 13,830; CS 8,350)

Description: In order to draw Pope’s army into battle, Jackson ordered an attack on a Federal column that was passing across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28. The fighting at Brawner Farm lasted several hours and resulted in a stalemate. Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jackson’s position along an unfinished railroad grade. The attacks were repulsed with heavy casualties on both sides.

At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson’s right flank. On August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field. When massed Confederate artillery devastated a Union assault by Fitz John Porter’s command, Longstreet’s wing of 28,000 men counterattacked in the largest, simultaneous mass assault of the war. The Union left flank was crushed and the army driven back to Bull Run. Only an effective Union rearguard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas disaster. Pope’s retreat to Centreville was precipitous, nonetheless. The next day, Lee ordered his army in pursuit. This was the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Chantilly

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Ox Hill

Location: Fairfax County

Campaign: Northern Virginia Campaign (June-September 1862)

Date(s): September 1, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny and Maj. Gen. Isaac Stevens [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 2,100 total (US 1,300; CS 800)

Description: Making a wide flank march, Jackson hoped to cut off the Union retreat from Bull Run. On September 1, beyond Chantilly Plantation on the Little River Turnpike near Ox Hill, Jackson sent his divisions against two Union divisions under Kearny and Stevens. Confederate attacks were stopped by fierce fighting during a severe thunderstorm. Union generals Stevens and Kearny were both killed. Recognizing that his army was still in danger at Fairfax Courthouse, Maj. Gen. Pope ordered the retreat to continue to Washington. With Pope no longer a threat, Lee turned his army west and north to invade Maryland, initiating the Maryland Campaign and the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan assumed command of Union forces around Washington.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Confederate strategic victory.)


Fredericksburg I

Civil War battles in Virginia 1862

Other Names: Marye’s Heights

Location: Spotsylvania County and Fredericksburg

Campaign: Fredericksburg Campaign (November-December 1862)

Date(s): December 11-15, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 172,504 total (US 100,007; CS 72,497)

Estimated Casualties: 17,929 total (US 13,353; CS 4,576)

Description: On November 14, Burnside, now in command of the Army of the Potomac, sent a corps to occupy the vicinity of Falmouth near Fredericksburg. The rest of the army soon followed. Lee reacted by entrenching his army on the heights behind the town. On December 11, Union engineers laid five pontoon bridges across the Rappahannock under fire. On the 12th, the Federal army crossed over, and on December 13, Burnside mounted a series of futile frontal assaults on Prospect Hill and Marye’s Heights that resulted in staggering casualties.

Meade’s division, on the Union left flank, briefly penetrated Jackson’s line but was driven back by a counterattack. Union generals C. Feger Jackson and George Bayard, and Confederate generals Thomas R.R. Cobb and Maxey Gregg were killed. On December 15, Burnside called off the offensive and recrossed the river, ending the campaign. Burnside initiated a new offensive in January 1863, which quickly bogged down in the winter mud. The abortive Mud March and other failures led to Burnside’s replacement by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker in January 1863.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Civil War Battles in Virginia 18622019-08-09T21:34:40-04:00

Civil War Battles in North Dakota

All Civil War battles in North Dakota. They are in the order in which they occurred during the Civil War.

Civil War Battles in North Dakota

Civil War Battles in North Dakota


Big Mound

Civil War battles in North Dakota

Other Names: None

Location: Kidder County

Campaign: Operations against the Sioux in North Dakota (1863)

Date(s): July 24-25, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley [US]; Chief Inkpaduta [I]

Forces Engaged: District of Minnesota [US]; Santee and Teton Sioux [I]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US unknown; I 13)

Description: Brig. Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley led his troops from Fort Ridgely, Minnesota, into the Dakotas, pursuing the Santee Sioux, who had initiated an uprising in the Minnesota River Valley in August 1862. The Santee had joined forces with the Teton Sioux. Having marched all day on July 24, 1863, Sibley’s scouts, around 1:00 pm, reported that they had spotted a large Native American camp a few miles away. Sibley established a camp on a nearby salt lake and set his men to entrenching it for protection. While in the process of making camp, numerous Native Americans appeared expressing friendship. A number of them approached the scouts gathered about 300-400 yards from the camp and began talking with them. Surgeon Josiah S. Weiser, 1st Regiment Minnesota Mounted Rangers, joined the assembly, but soon afterwards a Sioux shot and killed him.

The scouts attempted to kill the attacker but he escaped. Native Americans who had hidden behind the surrounding ridges now emerged and attacked. In detachments, the soldiers went out to meet the Native Americans. Sibley, with some men, approached the Big Mound on the opposite side of the ravine. He attempted to dislodge those Sioux who were on the upper part of the large ravine firing at the infantry and cavalry with impunity. The Union forces displaced these and other well-placed Sioux in the surrounding ridges by accurate artillery fire and forced them into the broken prairie where they fled in confusion. The mounted troops, with some of the infantry and artillery following, set out in pursuit. A running battle ensued for the rest of the day. Before dark, the soldiers broke off the pursuit and returned to camp as previously ordered, some not arriving until the next morning. The Sioux forces were broken and dispirited.

Result(s): Union victory


Dead Buffalo Lake

Civil War battles in North Dakota

Other Names: None

Location: Kidder County

Campaign: Operations against the Sioux in North Dakota (1863)

Date(s): July 26, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley [US]; Chief Inkpaduta [I]

Forces Engaged: District of Minnesota [US]; Santee and Teton Sioux [I]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Following the Battle of Big Mound on July 24, 1863, Brig. Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley and his men moved their camp about four miles and then rested till the next day. The morning of the 26th they set out and after marching about 14 miles, found the Sioux ready for battle. At first, the fighting was long range because the Native Americans refrained from closing with the soldiers. The Native Americans did attempt to flank the left side of the camp and run off the mules. The Mounted Rangers and infantry, though, after heavy fighting, compelled the Native Americans to abandon their intentions. Following this setback, the Sioux retreated, ending the battle. Sibley resumed his march after the Native Americans the next day. The Sioux were on the run.

Result(s): Union victory


Stony Lake

Civil War battles in North Dakota

Other Names: None

Location: Burleigh County

Campaign: Operations against the Sioux in North Dakota (1863)

Date(s): July 28, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley [US]; Chief Inkpaduta [I]

Forces Engaged: District of Minnesota [US]; Santee and Teton Sioux [I]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Following the Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake, Brig. Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley continued his march after the retreating Sioux until he reached Stony Lake, where his animals exhaustion compelled him to encamp. On the 28th, the force had started out in pursuit again when Sibley discovered that a large number of Sioux was moving upon him. He ordered the men to make defensive preparations, which many had already accomplished. In the face of enemy, Sibley now resumed his march. The Sioux searched for weak points in the soldiers position. Finding none, the Sioux rode off at great speed, preventing pursuit. The Sioux had hoped to halt Sibley’s advance but were unable to do so. Sibley remarked in his report that Stony Lake was the greatest conflict between our troops and the Indians, so far as the numbers were concerned.

Result(s): Union victory


Whitestone Hill

Civil War battles in North Dakota

Other Names: None

Location: Dickey County

Campaign: Operations against the Sioux in North Dakota (1863)

Date(s): September 3-5, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Alfred Sully [US]; Chief Inkpaduta [I]

Forces Engaged: Northwestern Expedition (600-700) [US]; Santee, Yankton, Cut-heads, Hunkapapa and Teton Sioux and Blackfeet (1,200-1,500) [I]

Estimated Casualties: 822 total (US 72; I 750)

Description: Following Brig. Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley’s victories over the Sioux, he left the area, crossing the James River. The Sioux then recrossed the Missouri River and returned to their old hunting grounds. Brig. Gen. Alfred Sully decided to find these Sioux and punish them, if possible. By September 3, Sully reached a lake where he found numerous remains of recently killed buffalo. A 6th Iowa Cavalry detachment discovered a Native American camp of more than 400 lodges, about 3:00 pm, which they endeavored to surround until a courier could inform Sully.

Word reached Sully around 4:00 pm, and he set out with the rest of the troops, except for the poorly mounted men who remained to protect the animals and supplies. About an hour later, Sully and his men arrived at the Sioux camp and observed that the Sioux were attempting to leave. Sully sent in his troops to help the 6th Iowa Cavalry. Although the Sioux did counterattack, it was to no avail. The Sioux eventually broke under the firepower and fled, hotly pursued. Fighting subsided after dark but scattered firing continued.

Sully ordered the bugler to sound rally, and all the troops remained at arms during the rest of the night. In the morning, Sully established a camp on the battlefield and, during the next two days, sent out scouting parties looking for remnants of the enemy. He also ordered the destruction of Native American foodstuffs, supplies, etc., found in the area. On September 5, one officer and 27 men from the 2nd Nebraska and 6th Iowa Cavalry regiments went in search of a surgeon and eight men missing since the battle on the 3rd. About 15 miles northwest of camp, they were attacked by a party of about 300 Sioux. The men could not stand up to this number of the enemy and began a slow retreat while returning fire. As the enemy came closer, the men panicked and stepped up their retirement despite entreaties from the officers. They eventually returned to camp and safety, after losing six men in the skirmish. Altogether, Sully’s men overran a large Sioux camp, destroyed much of the contents, killed or wounded a large number of men, and captured numerous women and children. This engagement weakened but did not destroy the Native American resistance in the area.

Result(s): Union victory


Killdeer Mountain

Civil War battles in North Dakota

Other Names: Tahkahokuty Mountain

Location: Dunn County

Campaign: Sully’s Expedition against the Sioux in Dakota Territory (1864)

Date(s): July 28-29, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Alfred Sully [US]; Chief Inkpaduta [I]

Forces Engaged: Detachments from eight units (2,200) [US]; Santee and Teton Sioux [I]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Brig. Gen. Alfred Sully, who had defeated the recalcitrant Sioux at Whitestone Hill in September 1863, wintered on the Missouri River. During the winter, Sully’s superior, Maj. Gen. John Pope, formulated a plan for ending the difficulties with the Sioux. He would order a force of about 2,500 men, commanded by Sully, into the field to find the Native Americans and engage them in battle. In addition, he would send infantry behind Sully’s force to establish strong-posts in the Indian country. Thus, Minnesota troops were ordered to meet Sully’s force at the mouth of Burdache Creek on the Upper Missouri for active campaigning. The two columns rendezvoused on June 30 and set out against the Sioux. They established Fort Rice on July 7 at the mouth of Cannonball River and moved on.

The Sioux, who had been operating north of Fort Rice, moved across the Missouri River and took a strong position on the Little Missouri River, about 200 miles from the fort. On July 26, Sully marched out to engage them in battle. On the 28th, he arrived near the Native American camp which he reported included 5,000-6,000 warriors strongly posted in wooded country, very much cut up with high, rugged hills, and deep, impassible ravines. Sully met with some of the tribal chiefs first, but nothing came of it so he attacked. Heavy fighting ensued, but eventually the artillery and long-range firearms took effect and the Sioux began losing ground. The retirement turned into flight. The Native Americans left all their possessions, and a running fight of almost nine miles scattered the warriors who were not wounded or killed. Killdeer Mountain broke the back of the Sioux resistance. Sully did meet the remnants of the Sioux warriors that had escaped Killdeer Mountain in August and defeated them, but they had none of the spirit formally exhibited.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in North Dakota2019-07-25T20:38:07-04:00

Civil War Battles in Colorado

Colorado played virtually no role in the Civil War.

The Confederates did not occupy any part of Colorado and no southern troops were ever in the state.

The only action that took place in the state was between Union troops and Native Americans at Sand Creek.

This was not a battle but a massacre.

Many Native Americans were slaughtered by Union troops after they cooperated and set up camp near Fort Lyon in order to receive amnesty.

The following is a description of All Civil War battles in Colorado.

Civil War Battles in Colorado

Civil War Battles in Colorado


Sand Creek

Other Names: Chivington Massacre

Location: Kiowa County

Campaign: Sand Creek Campaign (1864)

Date(s): November 29-30, 1864

Principal Commanders: Col. John Chivington [US]; Black Kettle, Cheyenne [I]

Forces Engaged: Third Colorado Regiment (approx. 700 men) [US]; 500 Cheyennes and a few Arapahos [I]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US unknown; I 200)

Description: Scattered Indian raids had caused much ill-will between the white settlers and the Native Americans. In the autumn, Territorial (Colorado) officers had offered a vague amnesty if Indians reported to army forts. Black Kettle with many Cheyennes and a few Arapahos, believing themselves to be protected, established a winter camp about 40 miles from Fort Lyon. On November 29, Col. John Chivington, who advocated Indian extermination, arrived near the camp, having marched there from Fort Lyon. In spite of the American flag and a white flag flying over the camp, the troops attacked, killing and mutilating about 200 of the Indians, two-thirds of whom were women and children.

Result(s): Union victory (massacre)

Civil War Battles in Colorado2019-07-25T20:49:33-04:00

Civil War Battles in North Carolina

All Civil War battles in North Carolina. They are in the order in which they occurred during the war.

Civil War Battles in North Carolina

Civil War Battles in North Carolina


Hatteras Inlet Batteries

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Forts Clark and Hatteras

Location: Dare County

Campaign: Blockade of the Carolina Coast (August-December 1861)

Date(s): August 28-29, 1861

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler [US]; Col. William F. Martin [CS]

Forces Engaged: 9th and 20th New York regiments (est. 2,000) [US]; Hatteras Island Garrison (900) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 773 total (US 3; CS 770)

Description: On August 26, an amphibious expedition led by Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler and Flag-Officer Silas Stringham, embarked from Fort Monroe to capture Hatteras Inlet, an important haven for blockade-runners. On the 28th, while the navy bombarded Forts Clark and Hatteras, Union troops came ashore and attacked the rear of the Confederate batteries. On August 29, Col. William F. Martin surrendered the Confederate garrison of 670. The Federals lost only one man. Butler returned to Fort Monroe, leaving the captured forts garrisoned. This movement was part of Union efforts to seize coastal enclaves from which to enforce the blockade.

Result(s): Union victory


Roanoke Island

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Fort Huger

Location: Dare County

Campaign: Burnside’s North Carolina Expedition (January-July 1862)

Date(s): February 7-8, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; Brig. Gen. Henry Wise [CS]

Forces Engaged: 10,500 total (US 7,500; CS 3,000)

Estimated Casualties: 2,907 total (US 37K/214W/13M; CS 23K/58W/62M/2,500 captured)

Description: On February 7, Brig. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside landed 7,500 men on the southwestern side of Roanoke Island in an amphibious operation launched from Fort Monroe. The next morning, supported by gunboats, the Federals assaulted the Confederate forts on the narrow waist of the island, driving back and out-maneuvering Brig. Gen. Henry Wise’s outnumbered command. After losing less than 100 men, the Confederate commander on the field, Col. H.M. Shaw, surrendered about 2,500 soldiers and 32 guns. Burnside had secured an important outpost on the Atlantic Coast, tightening the blockade.

Result(s): Union victory


New Berne

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: Craven County

Campaign: Burnside’s North Carolina Expedition (January-July 1862)

Date(s): March 14, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; Brig. Gen. Lawrence O’B. Branch [CS]

Forces Engaged: Expeditionary Force and Foster’s, Reno’s, and Parke’s Brigades [US]; 5 regiments, militia [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,080 total

Description: On March 11, Brig. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s command embarked from Roanoke Island to rendezvous with Union gunboats at Hatteras Inlet for an expedition against New Berne. On March 13, the fleet sailed up the Neuse River and disembarked infantry on the river’s south bank to approach the New Berne defenses. The Confederate defense was commanded by Brig. Gen. Lawrence Branch. On March 14, John G. Foster’s, Jesse Reno’s, and John G. Parke’s brigades attacked along the railroad and after four hours of fighting drove the Confederates out of their fortifications. The Federals captured nine forts and 41 heavy guns and occupied a base which they would hold to the end of the war, in spite of several Confederate attempts to recover the town.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Macon

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: Carteret County

Campaign: Burnside’s North Carolina Expedition (January-July 1862)

Date(s): March 23-April 26, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John G. Parke [US]; Lt. Col. Moses J. White [CS]

Forces Engaged: Parke’s Division of Department of North Carolina, 3rd Division [US]; Fort Macon Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 490 total (US 10; CS 480)

Description: In late March, Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s army advanced on Fort Macon, a third system casemated masonry fort that commanded the channel to Beaufort, 35 miles southeast of New Berne. The Union force invested the fort with siege works and, on April 26, opened an accurate fire on the fort, which soon breached the masonry walls. Within a few hours the fort’s scarp began to collapse, and the Confederates hoisted a white flag. This action demonstrated the inadequacy of masonry forts against large-bore, rifled artillery.

Result(s): Union victory


South Mills

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Camden

Location: Camden County

Campaign: Burnside’s North Carolina Expedition (January-July 1862)

Date(s): April 19, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Jesse Lee Reno [US]; Col. Ambrose Wright [CS]

Forces Engaged: 21st Massachusetts and 51st Pennsylvania [US]; 3rd Georgia [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 150 total

Description: Learning that the Confederates were building ironclads at Norfolk, Burnside planned an expedition to destroy the Dismal Swamp Canal locks to prevent transfer of the ships to Albemarle Sound. He entrusted the operation to Brig. Gen. Jesse Lee Reno’s command, which embarked on transports from Roanoke Island on April 18. By midnight, the convoy reached Elizabeth City and began disembarking troops. On the morning of April 19, Reno marched north on the road to South Mills. At the crossroads a few miles below South Mills, elements of Col. Ambrose Wright’s command delayed the Federals until dark. Reno abandoned the expedition and withdrew during the night to the transports at Elizabeth City. The transports carried Reno’s troops to New Berne where they arrived on April 22.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Federals withdrew.)


Tranter’s Creek

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: Pitt County

Campaign: Burnside’s North Carolina Expedition (January-July 1862)

Date(s): June 5, 1862

Principal Commanders: Lt. Col. F.A. Osborne [US]; Col. George Singletary [CS]

Forces Engaged: Regiments

Estimated Casualties: 40 total

Description: On June 5, Col. Robert Potter, garrison commander at Washington, North Carolina, ordered a reconnaissance in the direction of Pactolus. The 24th Massachusetts under Lt. Col. F.A. Osborne, advanced to the bridge over Tranter’s Creek, where it encountered the 44th North Carolina, under Col. George Singletary. Unable to force a crossing, Osborne brought his artillery to bear on the mill buildings in which the Confederates were barricaded. Colonel Singletary was killed in the bombardment, and his troops retreated. The Federals did not pursue and returned to their fortifications at Washington.

Result(s): Union victory


Kinston

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: Lenoir County

Campaign: Goldsborough Expedition (December 1862)

Date(s): December 14, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John G. Foster [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Evans [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of North Carolina, 1st Division [US]; Evans’s Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 685 total

Description: A Union expedition led by Brig. Gen. John G. Foster left New Berne in December to disrupt the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad at Goldsborough. The advance was stubbornly contested by Evans’s Brigade near Kinston Bridge on December 14, but the Confederates were outnumbered and withdrew north of the Neuse River in the direction of Goldsborough. Foster continued his movement the next day, taking the River Road, south of the Neuse River.

Result(s): Union victory


White Hall

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Whitehall, White Hall Ferry

Location: Wayne County

Campaign: Goldsborough Expedition (December 1862)

Date(s): December 16, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John G. Foster [US]; Brig. Gen. Beverly Robertson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Amory’s and Stevenson’s Brigades [US]; Robertson’s Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 150 total

Description: On December 16, Foster’s Union troops reached White Hall where Beverly Robertson’s brigade was holding the north bank of the Neuse River. The Federals demonstrated against the Confederates for much of the day, attempting to fix them in position, while the main Union column continued toward the railroad.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Goldsborough Bridge

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: Wayne County

Campaign: Goldsborough Expedition (December 1862)

Date(s): December 17, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John G. Foster [US]; Brig. Gen. Thomas Clingman [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of North Carolina, 1st Division [US]; Clingman’s Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 220 total

Description: On December 17, Foster’s expedition reached the railroad near Everettsville and began destroying the tracks north toward the Goldsborough Bridge. Clingman’s Confederate brigade delayed the advance but was unable to prevent the destruction of the bridge. His mission accomplished, Foster returned to New Berne where he arrived on the 20th.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Anderson

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Deep Gully

Location: Craven County

Campaign: Longstreet’s Tidewater Operations (February-May 1863)

Date(s): March 13-15, 1863

Principal Commanders: Lt. Col. Hiram Anderson [US]; Maj. Gen. D.H. Hill [CS]

Forces Engaged: 1st Division, XVIII Corps [US]; Hill’s Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 7 total

Description: Lt. Gen. James Longstreet took charge of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina on February 25 and initiated his Tidewater Operations. He directed D.H. Hill, commander of the North Carolina District, to advance on the Union stronghold of New Berne with about 12,000 men. Maj. Gen. William H.T. Whiting, who commanded the Wilmington garrison, refused to cooperate. After an initial success at Deep Gully on March 13, Hill marched against the well-entrenched Federals at Fort Anderson on March 14-15. Hill was forced to retire upon the arrival of Union gunboats. The city’s garrison was heavily reinforced, and Hill withdrew to threaten Washington, North Carolina.

Result(s): Union victory


Washington

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: Beaufort County

Campaign: Longstreet’s Tidewater Operations (February-May 1863)

Date(s): March 30-April 20, 1863

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John G. Foster [US]; Maj. Gen. D.H. Hill [CS]

Forces Engaged: 6 regiments and artillery units [US]; Hill’s Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 100 total

Description: While Longstreet operated against Suffolk, D.H. Hill’s column moved against the Federal garrison of Washington, North Carolina. By March 30, the town was ringed with fortifications, but the Confederates were unable to shut off supplies and reinforcements arriving by ship. After a week of confusion and mismanagement, Hill was maneuvered out of his siegeworks and withdrew on April 15.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Confederates withdrew.)


Plymouth

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: Washington County

Campaign: Operations against Plymouth (April-May 1864)

Date(s): April 17-20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Col. Henry W. Wessells [US]; Maj. Gen. R.F. Hoke [CS]

Forces Engaged: Plymouth Garrison (4 infantry and artillery units) [US]; Hoke’s Division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,834 total

Description: In a combined operation with the CSS ram Albemarle, Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. R.F. Hoke, attacked the Federal garrison at Plymouth on April 17. On April 19, the ram appeared in the river, sinking the Smithfield, damaging the Miami, and driving off the other Union ships supporting the Plymouth garrison. Confederate forces captured Fort Comfort, driving defenders into Fort Williams. On the 20th, the garrison surrendered.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Albemarle Sound

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: Chowan County and Washington County

Campaign: Operations against Plymouth (April-May 1864)

Date(s): May 5, 1864

Principal Commanders: Capt. Melancton Smith [US]; Cdr. J.W. Cooke [CS]

Forces Engaged: 9 gunboats [US]; Confederate ram [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 88 total

Description: On May 5, CSS Albemarle fought seven blockading Union ships to a draw at the mouth of the Roanoke River. Federals recaptured the converted steamer Bombshell. USS Sassacus was badly damaged.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Fort Fisher

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: New Hanover County

Campaign: Expedition against Fort Fisher (December 1864)

Date(s): December 7-27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Rear Adm. David D. Porter and Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler [US]; Maj. Gen. Robert Hoke [CS]

Forces Engaged: Expeditionary Corps, Army of the James [US]; Hoke’s Division and Fort Fisher Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 320 total

Description: Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler was relieved of command of the Army of the James and assigned to lead an amphibious expedition against Fort Fisher, which protected Wilmington, the South’s last open seaport on the Atlantic coast. Learning that large numbers of Union troops had embarked from Hampton Roads on December 13, Lee dispatched Hoke’s Division to meet the expected attack on Fort Fisher. On December 24, the Union fleet under Rear Adm. David D. Porter arrived to begin shelling the fort. An infantry division disembarked from transports to test the fort’s defenses. The Federal assault on the fort had already begun when Hoke approached, discouraging further Union attempts. Butler called off the expedition on December 27 and returned to Fort Monroe.

Result(s): Confederate victory


Fort Fisher

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: None

Location: New Hanover County

Campaign: Operations against Fort Fisher and Wilmington (January-February 1865)

Date(s): January 13-15, 1865

Principal Commanders: Rear Adm. David D. Porter and Maj. Gen. Alfred Terry [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg, Maj. Gen. Robert Hoke, and Col. Charles Lamb [CS]

Forces Engaged: Expeditionary Corps, Army of the James [US]; Hoke’s Division and Fort Fisher Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,000 total

Description: After the failure of his December expedition against Fort Fisher, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler was relieved of command. Maj. Gen. Alfred Terry was placed in command of a Provisional Corps, including Paine’s Division of U.S. Colored Troops, and supported by a naval force of nearly 60 vessels, to renew operations against the fort. After a preliminary bombardment directed by Rear Adm. David D. Porter on January 13, Union forces landed and prepared an attack on Maj. Gen. Robert Hoke’s infantry line. On the 15th, a select force moved on the fort from the rear. A valiant attack late in the afternoon, following the bloody repulse of a naval landing party carried the parapet. The Confederate garrison surrendered, opening the way for a Federal thrust against Wilmington, the South’s last open seaport on the Atlantic coast.

Result(s): Union victory


Wilmington

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Fort Anderson, Town Creek, Forks Road, Sugar Loaf Hill

Location: New Hanover County

Campaign: Operations against Fort Fisher and Wilmington (January-February 1865)

Date(s): February 12-22, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Schofield [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg [CS]

Forces Engaged:Cox’s, Ames’s, and Paine’s Divisions (12,000) [US]; Hoke’s Division, Hagood’s Brigade (6,600) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,150 total

Description: With the fall of Fort Fisher to Maj. Gen. Alfred Terry’s and Rear Adm. David Porter’s combined operation on January 15, Wilmington’s days were numbered. About 6,600 Confederate troops under Maj. Gen. Robert Hoke held Fort Anderson and a line of works that prevented the Federals from advancing up the Cape Fear River. Early February, the XXIII Corps arrived at Fort Fisher, and Maj. Gen. John Schofield took command of the Union forces. Schofield now began a series of maneuvers to force the Confederates to abandon their defenses. On February 16, Jacob Cox’s division ferried across the river to confront Fort Anderson, while Porter’s gunboats bombarded the fort.

On February 17-18, Ames’s division conducted a wide flanking march to get in the fort’s rear. Seeing the trap ready to close, the Confederates evacuated Fort Anderson during the night of the 18th-19th, withdrawing to Town Creek to form a new defensive line. The next day, this line collapsed to increasing Federal pressures. During the night of February 21-22, Gen. Braxton Bragg ordered the evacuation of Wilmington, burning cotton, tobacco, and government stores.

Result(s): Union victory


Wyse Fork

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Wilcox’s Bridge, Wise’s Fork, Second Kinston, Second Southwest Creek, Kelly’s Mill Pond

Location: Lenoir County

Campaign: Campaign of the Carolinas (February-April 1865)

Date(s): March 7-10, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Schofield [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions: 20,500 total (US 12,000; CS 8,500)

Estimated Casualties: 2,601 total (US 1,101; CS 1,500)

Description: Schofield planned to advance inland from Wilmington in February, at the same time assigning Maj. Gen. Jacob Cox to direct Union forces from New Berne toward Goldsboro. On March 7, Cox’s advance was stopped by Hoke’s and Hagood’s divisions under Gen. Braxton Bragg’s command at Southwest Creek below Kinston. On the 8th, the Confederates attempted to seize the initiative by attacking the Union flanks. After initial success, the Confederate attacks stalled because of faulty communications. On March 9, the Union forces were reinforced and beat back Bragg’s renewed attacks on the 10th after heavy fighting. Bragg withdrew across the Neuse River and was unable to prevent the fall of Kinston on March 14.

Result(s): Union victory


Monroe’s Cross

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Fayetteville Road, Blue’s Farm

Location: Hoke County

Campaign: Campaign of the Carolinas (February-April 1865)

Date(s): March 10, 1865

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick [US]; Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler and Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Kilpatrick’s Cavalry Division (1,850) [US]; Wheeler’s and Hampton’s Cavalry Division (3,000) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 269 total (US 183; CS 86)

Description: As Sherman’s army advanced into North Carolina, Kilpatrick’s Cavalry Division screened its left flank. On the evening of March 9, two of Kilpatrick’s brigades encamped near the Charles Monroe House in Cumberland (now Hoke) County. Early on the 10th, Confederate cavalry under the command of Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton surprised the Federals in their camps, driving them back in confusion and capturing wagons and artillery. The Federals regrouped and counterattacked, regaining their artillery and camps after a desperate fight. With Union reinforcements on the way, the Confederates withdrew.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Averasborough

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Taylor’s Hole Creek, Smithville, Smiths Ferry, Black River

Location: Harnett County and Cumberland County

Campaign: Campaign of the Carolinas (February-April 1865)

Date(s): March 16, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Henry Slocum [US]; Lt. Gen. William Hardee [CS]

Forces Engaged: XX Corps and XIV Corps (25,992) [US]; Hardee’s Corps (5,400) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,419 total

Description: On the afternoon of March 15, Judson Kilpatrick’s cavalry came up against Lt. Gen. William Hardee’s corps’ consisting of Taliaferro’s and McLaw’s infantry divisions and Wheeler’s dismounted cavalry deployed across the Raleigh Road near Smithville. After feeling out the Confederate defenses, Kilpatrick withdrew and called for infantry support. During the night, four divisions of the XX Corps arrived to confront the Confederates. At dawn, March 16, the Federals advanced on a division front, driving back skirmishers, but they were stopped by the main Confederate line and a counterattack. Mid-morning, the Federals renewed their advance with strong reinforcements and drove the Confederates from two lines of works, but were repulsed at a third line. Late afternoon, the Union XIV Corps began to arrive on the field but was unable to deploy before dark due to the swampy ground. Hardee retreated during the night after holding up the Union advance for nearly two days.

Result(s): Inconclusive


Bentonville

Civil War battles in North Carolina

Other Names: Bentonsville

Location: Johnston County

Campaign: Campaign of the Carolinas (February-April 1865)

Date(s): March 19-21, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman and Maj. Gen. Henry Slocum [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Sherman’s Right Wing (XX and XIV Corps) [US]; Johnston’s Army [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 4,738 total (US 1,646; CS 3,092)

Description: While Slocum’s advance was stalled at Averasborough by Hardee’s troops, the right wing of Sherman’s army under command of Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard marched toward Goldsborough. On March 19, Slocum encountered the entrenched Confederates of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston who had concentrated to meet his advance at Bentonville. Late afternoon, Johnston attacked, crushing the line of the XIV Corps. Only strong counterattacks and desperate fighting south of the Goldsborough Road blunted the Confederate offensive. Elements of the XX Corps were thrown into the action as they arrived on the field. Five Confederate attacks failed to dislodge the Federal defenders and darkness ended the first day’s fighting. During the night, Johnston contracted his line into a V to protect his flanks with Mill Creek to his rear. On March 20, Slocum was heavily reinforced, but fighting was sporadic. Sherman was inclined to let Johnston retreat. On the 21st, however, Johnston remained in position while he removed his wounded. Skirmishing heated up along the entire front.

In the afternoon, Maj. Gen. Joseph Mower led his Union division along a narrow trace that carried it across Mill Creek into Johnston’s rear. Confederate counterattacks stopped Mower’s advance, saving the army’s only line of communication and retreat. Mower withdrew, ending fighting for the day. During the night, Johnston retreated across the bridge at Bentonville. Union forces pursued at first light, driving back Wheeler’s rearguard and saving the bridge. Federal pursuit was halted at Hannah’s Creek after a severe skirmish. Sherman, after regrouping at Goldsborough, pursued Johnston toward Raleigh. On April 18, Johnston signed an armistice with Sherman at the Bennett House, and on April 26, formally surrendered his army.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in North Carolina2019-07-25T20:38:51-04:00

Civil War Battles in Minnesota

All Civil War battles in Minnesota. They are in the order in which they occurred during the war.

Civil War Battles in Minnesota

Civil War Battles in Minnesota


Fort Ridgely

Civil War battles in Minnesota

Other Names: None

Location: Nicollet County

Campaign: Operations to Suppress the Sioux Uprising (1862)

Date(s): August 20-22, 1862

Principal Commanders: 1st Lt. Timothy J. Sheehan [US]; Chief Little Crow [I]

Forces Engaged: Fort Ridgely Garrison and refugee civilians [US]; Santee Sioux [I]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 16; I unknown)

Description: In August 1862, the Santee Sioux of Minnesota under Chief Little Crow, angered by the failure of the Federal government to provide annuities and by the poor quality of rations, went on the offensive. They killed approximately 800 settlers and soldiers, took many prisoners, and caused extensive property damage throughout the Minnesota River Valley. Fort Ridgely, about twelve miles from the Lower Sioux Agency, became the refuge for white civilians. The fort’s commander, Capt. John S. Marsh, set out with most of his men for the Lower Sioux Agency. Before reaching the agency, a large Native American force surprised the soldiers, killed half of them, including Marsh, and pursued the survivors back to the fort. On August 20, about 400 Sioux attacked the fort but were repulsed. On the 22nd, 800 Sioux attacked the fort again, but the garrison and civilians held the fort.

Result(s): Union victory


Wood Lake

Other Names: None

Location: Yellow Medicine County

Campaign: Operations to Suppress the Sioux Uprising (1862)

Date(s): September 23, 1862

Principal Commanders: Col. Henry Hastings Sibley [US]; Chief Little Crow [I]

Forces Engaged: Volunteer troops (about 1,500) [US]; Santee Sioux [I]

Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 37; I unknown)

Description: On September 19, 1862, Col. Henry Hastings Sibley set out from Fort Ridgely with 1,500 volunteers to put down the Santee uprising. As they neared Wood Lake on September 23, Sibley’s men escaped an ambush by 700 warriors under Chief Little Crow and engaged them in a battle. Sibley’s force won the day inflicting heavy casualties on the Sioux. For this action, Sibley received a promotion to brigadier general. Wood Lake was the first decisive defeat of the Sioux since the uprising began.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Minnesota2019-07-25T20:41:57-04:00

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Alabama was fortunate that it did not suffer through as many battles during the war as other states did. In fact no battle was fought in Alabama until 1863 almost exactly two years after the beginning of the conflict. One of the most notable battles that took place in Alabama was the battle of Mobile Bay fought in 1864.

This was a Union attack combining naval and land forces against Mobile Bay leading to a Union victory. Confederate forces were never able to win any battles in Alabama. The following is a list of all Civil War battles in Alabama. They are in the order in which they occurred during the Civil War.


Day’s Gap

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: Sand Mountain

Location: Cullman County, Alabama

Campaign: Streight’s Raid in Alabama and Georgia (1863)

Date(s): April 30, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. Abel Streight [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Men from 51st Indiana Infantry, 73rd Indiana Infantry, 3rd Ohio Infantry, 80th Illinois Infantry, and 1st Middle Tennessee Cavalry [US]; three regiments [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 88 total (US 23; CS 65)

Description: Union Col. Abel D. Streight led a provisional brigade on a raid to cut the Western & Atlantic Railroad that supplied Gen. Braxton Bragg’s Confederate army in Middle Tennessee. From Nashville, Tennessee, Streight’s command traveled to Eastport, Mississippi, and then proceeded east to Tuscumbia, Alabama, in conjunction with another Union force commanded by Brig. Gen. Grenville Dodge. On April 26, 1863, Streight’s men left Tuscumbia and marched southeast, their initial movements screened by Dodge’s troops.

On April 30, Confederate Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s brigade caught up with Streight’s expedition and attacked its rearguard at Day’s Gap on Sand Mountain. The Federals repulsed this attack and continued their march to avoid further delay and envelopment. Thus began a running series of skirmishes and engagements at Crooked Creek (April 30), Hog Mountain (April 30), Blountsville (May 1), Black Creek/Gadsden (May 2), and Blount’s Plantation (May 2). Forrest finally surrounded the exhausted Union soldiers near Rome, Georgia, where he forced their surrender on May 3.

Result(s): Union victory, although the raid ultimately failed.


Athens

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Limestone County

Campaign: Operations in North Alabama (1864)

Date(s): January 26, 1864

Principal Commanders: Capt. Emil Adams [US]; Lt. Col. Moses W. Hannon [CS]

Forces Engaged: 9th Illinois Mounted Infantry [US]; 1st Alabama Cavalry [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 50 total (US 20; CS 30)

Description: Confederate cavalry, numbering about 600 men, attacked Athens, held by about 100 Union troops, around 4:00 am on the morning of January 26, 1864. After a two-hour battle, the Confederates retreated. Union forces, although greatly outnumbered and without fortifications, repulsed the attackers.

Result(s): Union victory (The Confederate force failed in its attempt to take Athens.)


Mobile Bay

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: Passing of Forts Morgan and Gaines

Location: Mobile County and Baldwin County

Campaign: Operations in Mobile Bay (1864)

Date(s): August 2-23, 1864

Principal Commanders: Adm. David G. Farragut and Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger [US]; Adm. Franklin Buchanan and Brig. Gen. Richard L. Page [CS]

Forces Engaged: Farragut’s Fleet (14 wooden ships and 4 monitors) and U.S. army forces near Mobile [US]; Buchanan’s Flotilla (3 gunboats and an ironclad), Fort Morgan Garrison, Fort Gaines Garrison, and Fort Powell Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,822 (US 322; CS 1,500)

Description: A combined Union force initiated operations to close Mobile Bay to blockade running. Some Union forces landed on Dauphin Island and laid siege to Fort Gaines. On August 5, Farragut’s Union fleet of eighteen ships entered Mobile Bay and received a devastating fire from Forts Gaines and Morgan and other points. After passing the forts, Farragut forced the Confederate naval forces, under Adm. Franklin Buchanan, to surrender, which effectively closed Mobile Bay. By August 23, Fort Morgan, the last big holdout, fell, shutting down the port. The city, however, remained uncaptured.

Results(s): Union victory


Decatur

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Morgan County and Limestone County

Campaign: Franklin-Nashville Campaign (1864)

Date(s): October 26-29, 1864

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Robert S. Granger [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Garrison and other troops sent there (approx. 5,000 men) [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 605 total (US 155; CS 450)

Description: As Gen. John B. Hood began the Franklin-Nashville Campaign during the fall of 1864, his Army of Tennessee demonstrated against Decatur, Alabama, October 26-29, in an attempt to cross the Tennessee River. Union forces, under the command of Brig. Gen. Robert S. Granger for most of the battle, numbered only about 5,000 men, but successfully prevented the much larger Confederate force from crossing the river.

Result(s): Union victory (Confederate forces could not cross the river.)


Spanish Fort

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Baldwin County

Campaign: Mobile Campaign (1865)

Date(s): March 27-April 8, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby [US]; Brig. Gen. Randall L. Gibson [CS]

Forces Engaged: XVI and XIII Corps [US]; Spanish Fort Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,401 (US 657; CS 744)

Description: Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby’s XIII and XVI corps moved along the eastern shore of Mobile Bay forcing the Confederates back into their defenses. Union forces then concentrated on Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. On March 27, 1865, Canby’s forces rendezvoused at Danley’s Ferry and immediately undertook a siege of Spanish Fort. The Union had enveloped the fort by April 1, and on April 8 captured it. Most of the Confederate forces, under the command of Brig. Gen. Randall L. Gibson, escaped and fled to Mobile, but Spanish Fort was no longer a threat.

Result(s): Union victory


Fort Blakely

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Baldwin County

Campaign: Mobile Campaign (1865)

Date(s): April 2-9, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby [US]; Brig. Gen. St. John R. Liddell [CS]

Forces Engaged: XIII and XVI Corps [US]; Fort Blakely Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Total 4,475. April 9 only 3,529 (US 629; CS 2,900)

Description: E.R.S. Canby’s forces, the XVI and XIII corps, moved along the eastern shore of Mobile Bay, forcing the Confederates back into their defenses. Union forces then concentrated on Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. By April 1, Union forces had enveloped Spanish Fort, thereby releasing more troops to focus on Fort Blakely. Brig. Gen. St. John R. Liddell, with about 4,000 men, held out against the much larger Union force until Spanish Fort fell on April 8, allowing Canby to concentrate 16,000 men for the attack on April 9. Sheer numbers breached the Confederate earthworks compelling the Confederates to capitulate. The siege and capture of Fort Blakely was basically the last combined-force battle of the war. African-American forces played a major role in the successful Union assault.

Result(s): Union victory (Fort Blakely surrendered.)


Selma

Civil War Battles in Alabama

Other Names: None

Location: Dallas County

Campaign: Wilson’s Raid in Alabama and Georgia (1865)

Date(s): April 2, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson [US]; Lt. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two cavalry divisions [US]; troops in city (approx. 5,000 men) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,019 total (US 319; CS 2,700)

Description: Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson, commanding three divisions of Union cavalry, about 13,500 men, led his men south from Gravelly Springs, Alabama, on March 22, 1865. Opposed by Confederate Lt. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest, Wilson skillfully continued his march and eventually defeated him in a running battle at Ebenezer Church, on April 1. Continuing towards Selma, Wilson split his command into three columns. Although Selma was well-defended, the Union columns broke through the defenses at separate points forcing the Confederates to surrender the city, although many of the officers and men, including Forrest and Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor, escaped. Selma demonstrated that even Forrest, whom some had considered invincible, could not stop the unrelenting Union movements deep into the Southern Heartland.

Result(s): Union victory

Civil War Battles in Alabama2019-07-25T20:50:17-04:00